Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2014 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Sunday, 26 July 2015

NASA's Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock

NASA's Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock

NASA's Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock
NASA News, Jet Prpulsion Laboratory, July 23, 2015
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4668

Yours,

Paul H.

Abrupt Warming Led to Demise of Woolly Mammoths

Abrupt Warming Led to Demise of Woolly Mammoths

Mammoths killed by abrupt climate change
University of Adelaide, Friday, 24 July 2015
http://www.adelaide.edu.au/news/news79662.html

Extinction events linked to prehuman global warming
by Clare Peddie, NewsComAU, July
http://www.news.com.au/technology/science/extinction-events-linked-to-prehuman-global-warming/story-fnjwl2dr-1227457217812

Abrupt Warming Led to Demise of Woolly Mammoths,
Scientists Say,Sci-News.com, July 23, 2015
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/science-interstadials-woolly-mammoths-03054.html

The paper is:

Cooper, A. C. Turney, K. A. Hughen, B. W. Brook,
H. G. McDonald, and C. J. A. Bradshaw, 2015,
Abrupt warming events drove Late Pleistocene
Holarctic megafaunal turnover. Science Express.
Published Online July 23 2015
Science DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4315
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2015/07/22/science.aac4315.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 25 July 2015

Fossils of Four-legged Snake Discovered (Brazil)

Fossils of Four-legged Snake Discovered (Brazil)

Four-legged fossil sheds light on mysteries of
snake evolution. (According to scientists, the
four-legged snake suggests that the modern-day
reptiles evolved from digging, rather than
swimming, ancestor) by Beatrice Gitau,
Christian Science Monitor, July 24, 2015
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0724/Four-legged-fossil-sheds-light-on-mysteries-of-snake-evolution

A Fossil Snake With Four Legs by Ed Yong
National geographic, July 24, 2015
http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/07/23/a-fossil-snake-with-four-legs/

Four-legged snake fossil discovered, BBC
BBC News, July 24, 2015
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33621491

The (Potentially Illegal) Fantastic Four-Legged Snake And Ethics Of Fossil Collection by Shaena Montanari, Forbes, July 24, 2015
http://www.forbes.com/sites/shaenamontanari/2015/07/24/the-potentially-illegal-fantastic-four-legged-snake-and-ethics-of-fossil-collection/

Martill, D. M., H. Tischlinger, and N. R. Longrich
2015, A four-legged snake from the Early
Cretaceous of Gondwana. Science. vol. 24,
pp. 416-419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9208
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/349/6246/416.abstract?sid=738b60b2-baed-4d8c-8ea9-123cb898b7ad

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Gastrolith Papers

Gastrolith Papers

Below are some interesting papers about gastroliths
that can downloaded for free from online.

Wings, Oliver (2004): Identification, distribution, and
function of gastroliths in dinosaurs and extant birds with
emphasis on ostriches (Struthio camelus). Ph.D. Thesis,
The University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 187 pp.
http://www.dinosaurhunter.org/files/dissertation-wings-2004-identification__distribution__and_function_of_gastroliths.pdf
http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2004/0462/0462.pdf

Wings, O. 2007. A review of gastrolith function with
implications for fossil vertebrates and a revised
classification. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52 (1): 1–16.
https://www.app.pan.pl/issue.html?issue=205
https://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app52/app52-001.pdf
http://www.dinosaurhunter.org/9-0-Publications-Oliver-Wings.html

Wings, O. (2012). Gastroliths in Coprolites - A Call to Search.
In: Vertebrate Coprolites. Hunt, et al. (eds.), New Mexico
Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin no. 57.
http://www.dinosaurhunter.org/9-0-Publications-Oliver-Wings.html
http://www.dinosaurhunter.org/files/nmmnhb-2012-wings-gastroliths_in_coprolites.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.



Monday, 13 July 2015

Wednesday, 8 July 2015

Treasure Trove of Soft-Bodied Ordovician Fossils From Morocco

Treasure Trove of Soft-Bodied Ordovician Fossils From Morocco

Rare Fossils of 400-Million-Year-Old Sea Creatures
Uncovered, by Laura Geggel, Live Science, July 08, 2015
http://www.livescience.com/51474-morocco-marine-fossils-uncovered.html

Photos: Trove of Marine Fossils Discovered in Morocco
by Laura Geggel, Live Science, July 08, 2015
http://www.livescience.com/51467-photos-moroccan-marine-fossils.html

Spectacular Moroccan fossils redefine evolutionary timelines
Science Daily, Geological Society of London, July 7, 2015
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150707213241.htm

Exceptionally preserved fossils New fossil discoveries
Yale University, http://people.earth.yale.edu/research/derek-briggs

The paper is:

Van Roy, P., Briggs, D.E.G. & Gaines R.R. The Fezouata
fossils of Morocco; an extraordinary record of marine life
in the Early Ordovician. Journal of the Geological Society,
July 8, 2015 DOI: 10.1144/jgs2015-017
http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/content/early/2015/06/29/jgs2015-017.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

Plans Being Made For Closing Of The 138-Year-Old Illinois State Museum System

Plans Being Made For Closing Of The 138-Year-Old Illinois State Museum System

Plans have been proposed to close the 138-year-old
Illinois State Museum System. This includes their large
collection of Quaternary vertebrates

Statement from the American Alliance of Museums:
“Illinois State Museum System at Risk of Closure; Show
Your Support! http://t.congressweb.com/w/?GILOPWGAPZ

Some Illinois State Museum web pages:

http://exhibits.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/larson/loess.html
http://exhibits.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/larson/ice_age_animals.html
Faunmap, Illinois State Museum - http://www.museum.state.il.us/research/faunmap/
http://www.museum.state.il.us/research/faunmap/aboutfaunmap.html

Opinion pieces about proposed closing:

Jodie O'Gorman: Closing Illinois State Museum would
reflect poorly on the state, The State-Journal-Register
http://www.sj-r.com/article/20150625/OPINION/150629652

Our Opinion: Don't shutter Illinois' natural, cultural
history, June 27, 2015, The State-Journal-Register
http://www.sj-r.com/article/20150627/OPINION/150629564/

The public hearing on the closure is scheduled for July 13.
The public comment period runs through July 22.

Newspaper articles are:

1. Illinois State Museum closing would be devastating, advocate says
The State-Journal-Register, June 10, 2015
http://www.sj-r.com/article/20150610/NEWS/150619927

2. Illinois State Museum to remain open into August pending review
The State-Journal-Register, June 30, 2015
http://www.sj-r.com/article/20150630/NEWS/150639947

3. Public hearing scheduled on possible Illinois State Museum closure
The State-Journal-Register, June 29, 2015
http://www.sj-r.com/article/20150629/NEWS/150629506

Nice public radio piece is “Grassroots Efforts To Keep State
Museum Open” by Rachel Otwell, July 1, 2015
http://wuis.org/post/grass-roots-efforts-keep-state-museum-open

Official schedule:
http://cgfa.ilga.gov/resource.aspx?id=1822

Official closure statement from DNR:
http://cgfa.ilga.gov/upload/DNRrecommendILStateMuseum.pdf

Website for public commentary:
http://cgfa.ilga.gov/Resource.aspx?id=1357

Yours,

Paul H

Friday, 3 July 2015

8.52-carat Diamond Found at Crater of Diamonds State Park

8.52-carat Diamond Found at Crater of Diamonds State Park

Colorado Woman Finds 8.52 Carat Diamond At
Arkansas Park by Associated Press, June 29, 2015
http://wspa.com/2015/06/29/colorado-woman-finds-8-52-carat-diamond-at-arkansas-park/

Colorado woman unearths 8.52-carat diamond at
Arkansas park by Nicole Hensley, new york Daily News
http://m.nydailynews.com/news/national/colorado-woman-unearths-8-52-carat-diamond-arkansas-park-article-1.2273561

Colorado Woman Discovers 8.52-Carat Diamond
in Arkansas State Park, peoples Magazine
http://www.people.com/article/bobbie-oskarson-crater-of-diamonds-state-park-discovery

Yours,

Paul H.

Giant Sinkholes Spotted on Rosetta Comet

Giant Sinkholes Spotted on Rosetta Comet

Giant sinkholes spotted on Rosetta's comet
Science Now, Los Angeles Times, July 1, 2015
http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-comet-sinkholes-rosetta-20150630-story.html

Rosetta spies cometary sinkholes, BBC News
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33354872

Rosetta spots sinkholes on comet 67P
The Daily Mail, July 1, 2015
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3146180/Rosetta-spots-SINKHOLES-comet-67P-Giant-abysses-formed-ice-turned-gas-surface-collapsed.html

The paper is:

Vincent, J.-B., and many, many otehrs, 2015, Large
heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active
pits from sinkhole collapse. Nature. vol 523, pp. 63–66
(02 July 2015) doi:10.1038/nature14564
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v523/n7558/full/nature14564.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 2 July 2015

Most of Earth’s Impact Craters Await Discovery

Most of Earth’s Impact Craters Await Discovery

Hi,

Below is what Ed is talking about:

340 undiscovered meteorite impact sites on Earth,
geologists calculate, Science News, June 30, 2015
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150630080204.htm

S. Hergarten, T. Kenkmann. The number of impact
craters on Earth: Any room for further discoveries?
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 425,
pp. 187-192. DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.06.009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X15003659

Most of Earth’s impact craters await discovery.
Ninety or more cavities wider than 1 kilometer
remain to be found by Thomas sumner, June 17, 2015
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/most-earth’s-impact-craters-await-discovery

I will have read through and think about it, to
figure out what I think of it.

Yours,
Paul H.

Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Comet Debris Rained Down on Mars Last October

Comet Debris Rained Down on Mars Last October

October Comet Flyby Caused 'Mind-Blowing'
Martian Meteor Shower by Larry O'Hanlon
Discovery News, June 30, 2015
http://www.space.com/29804-comet-siding-spring-mars-meteor-shower.html

Comet Metal Rained Down on Mars
by Larry O'Hanlon, June 25, 2015
http://news.discovery.com/space/metals-rain-down-on-mars-150626.htm

Yours,

Paul H.

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts
Sterling K. Webb wrote:

>The village is actually named "Kitscoty."
>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitscoty
>
>Kitscoty is named after a village in
>Kent (U.K.) with a famous stone
>megalithic structure, so while Googling
>for a Kitscoty Structure you have to
>distinguish which Kitscoty and what
>kind of structure is meant.
>http://albertacommunityprofiles.com/Profile/Kitscoty/2
>
>The "structure" referred to is a proposed
>"rebound" plateau of an impact south of
>Kitscoty, Alberta, Canada:
> http://www.meridianbooster.com/2009/03/18/did-a-massive-meteor-touch-down-here

I found two geological maps that cover the area of this alleged
structure. they are:

Kitscoty, Alberta, 1942, A Series, 1:253,440 scale, Geological Map
http://geogratis.gc.ca/api/en/nrcan-rncan/ess-sst/b59bdeb9-e941-5e83-a51b-2ab4c2f210c0.html
http://ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca/pub/geott/ess_pubs/106/106804/gscmap-a_673a_e_1942_mn01.pdf

Bedrock Geology of the Vermilion Area (NTS 73E), Map 570,
1:250,000 scale, Alberta Geological Survey
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/map/PDF/Map_570.pdf
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/MAP_570.html
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/pubs.aspx?pkey=vermilion

The Kitscoty, Alberta, 1942, A Series, geological Map shows
that this alleged feature is neither circular nor even a structure.
This map show only relatively flat lying Cretaceous sedimentary
strata that lacks any significant structure to it. There are a
couple of accurate geomorphic features. But neither of them
form a circle. It does not look like there is anything
significant about this "feature."

However, a nearby map that I came across shows what is
called the "Eagle Butte Astrobleme" just west of the Cypress
Hills, Alberta. The map is:

Bedrock Geology of the Foremost Area (NTS 72E),
Map 568, 1:250,000 scale, Alberta Geological Survey
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/MAP_568.html
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/MAP/PDF/MAP_568.PDF

The Cypress Hills, Canada
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypress_Hills_(Canada)

Yours,

Paul H.

Re: [meteorite-list] Nastapoka Arc, Hudson Bay, Canada

Nastapoka Arc, Hudson Bay, Canada

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

In “Re: Changes in 14C and Impacts“
Sterling Webb wrote;

I can suggest another very ancient crater: the south-southeastern coast of Hudson Bay, above James Bay is a portion of a perfect circle and it has a nice cluster of islands at the geometric center of that circle like the remnants of central peaks. I've always thought that it could be what's left of a very, very ancient "astrobleme." 
The cluster of islands at the center of the Nastapoka Arc in Hudson Bay has at various times caught the attention of many a geologist, planetologist, and independent investigator and typically proved to be a major disappointment to many a stalker of extraterrestrial impact craters. They are the Beltcher Islands, which are an are an archipelago in Hudson Bay. Instead of consisting of older and highly brecciated and faulted strata that has been uplifted as part of a central uplift, they consist of younger, softer, tightly folded  Proterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the eroded surface of the older, harder, Archean gneisses that outcrop eastward of the Nastapoka Arc. This Arc closely follows the unconformable contact between Archean Superior province gneisses and westward dipping early Proterozoic Belcher Group. The Belcher Islands are the exposed part of the Circum Ungava Fold Belt, which underlies the eastern edge of Hudson Bay. The fold belt consists of continental margins and a seaway that has been curshed between between two Archean landmasses during the Trans-Hudson Orogeny.

Web pages:

Belcher Islands
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belcher_Islands

Ricketts, B. D., and J. A. Donaldson, 1981,
Sedimentary History of the Belcher Group of
Hudson Bay. In Proterozoic Basins of Canada; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 81-10,
p. 235-254
http://geoscan.nrcan.gc.ca/starweb/geoscan/servlet.starweb?path=geoscan/fulle.web&search1=R=109371

http://ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca/pub/geott/ess_pubs/109/109385/pa_81_10.pdf

Hynes, A., 1991, The gravity field of eastern Hudson Bay: Evidence for a flextural origin
for the Hudson Bay (Nastapoka) Arc? Tectonics.
Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 722–728, August 1991
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/91TC00643/abstract

Dietz, R.S., and J.P. Barringer (1973) Hudson
Bay Arc as an Astrobleme: a Negative Search.
Meteoritics. vol. 8, pp. 28–29.
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1973Metic...8...28D

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973Metic...8...28D

Have you seen an Omar (Omarolluk erratic)?
http://www.gov.mb.ca/iem/geo/surficial/omar_erratics.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts
by Sterling Webb

Paul, Ed, List,

The village is actually named "Kitscoty."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitscoty

Kitscoty is named after a village in Kent (U.K.) with a famous stone megalithic structure, so while Googling
for a Kitscoty Structure you have to distinguish which Kitscoty and what kind of structure is meant.
http://albertacommunityprofiles.com/Profile/Kitscoty/2

The "structure" referred to is a proposed "rebound" plateau of an impact south of Kitscoty, Alberta, Canada:
http://www.meridianbooster.com/2009/03/18/did-a-massive-meteor-touch-down-he
re

I don't know (and am not going to Google myself to death finding out), but I recall
that Hudson Bay and the Canadian Shield is very old crust, at least 2.0 to 2.5 billion years old.

It is bound to have evidence of a great many impacts in that long time span, but most, of ancient age. Plus, the Canadian Shield has been scoured by every ice age for billions of years, over and over and over again. Only evidences that can survive that will be found.

With typical human short-sightedness,most theories of any explanation of a feature in Northern Canada are always referred to "the last Ice Age," which is only the last few million years, while
the Shield is immensely more ancient and has been exposed for BILLIONS of years.

Northern Canada contains a great many craters; see:
http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/02files/Earth_Images_09.html#Steen

I can suggest another very ancient crater:the south-southeastern coast of Hudson Bay, above James Bay is a portion of a perfect circle and it has a nice cluster of islands at the geometric center of that circle like the remnants of central peaks. I've always thought that it could be what's left of a very, very ancient "astrobleme." See map at:
http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/hudsonbay.htm

It's very suggestive. But evidence? I know of none.

Sterling Webb

Monday, 29 June 2015

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

 Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

Dear Ed:

On June 28, 2015, in “Changes In 14C and Impacts,”
you wrote:

>I am looking forward to your comments on the Kiscoty structure.

At this time, I lack any comments about the Kiscoty structure.
The problem is that the only material that I have been able to
find about is a newspaper article that lacks any coordinates
and has only a medium to small scale map with terrible
resolution and lacking any mark as to where this feature is in
the map. Given, the scale and resolution of the the article’s
map, it is impossible discern what in this map is the “Kiscoty
structure” and exactly where it is located. I would need a
specific location, preferably a latitude and longitude, of some
sort for its center and what its diameter or radius is to be
able to comment on the Kiscoty structure.

By the way and off topic, in both 1394 BP and 1450 BP,
tsunamis devastated northern coast of Aceh, northern
Sumatra, as discussed in a fascinating Open Access
paper:

Sieh, K. P. Daly, E. E. McKinnon, J. E. Pilarczyk, H.-W.
Chiang, B. Horton, C. M. Rubin, C.-C. Shen, N. Ismail,
C. H. Vane, and R. M. Feener, 2015, Penultimate
predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in
Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological, and
historical evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research
(Solid Earth) vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 308–325 (January 2015 )
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JB011538/abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

"The past is never dead. It's not even past."
William Faulkner, Act 1, Scene III, Requiem for a Nun (1951)

Re: [meteorite-list] Changes In 14C and Impacts

Late Devonian Extinction and Killer Trees Article

Late Devonian Extinction and Killer Trees Article

Devonian extinction saw the oceans choke to death
(Before the first animals had crawled out onto land,
marine animals suffered a catastrophic mass
extinction. They may have literally asphyxiated.)
by Chris Baraniuk, BBC News,
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150624-the-day-the-oceans-died

Some papers of Dr. Algeo that related to this article are:

Algeo, T.J., R.A. Berner, J.P. Maynard, and S.E. Scheckler.
1995. "Late Devonian oceanic anoxic events and biotic
crises: "Rooted" in the evolution of vascular land plants?"
GSA Today 5: 45, 64-66.
http://www.geosociety.org/pubs/gsatoday/archive/toc9503.htm
https://www.academia.edu/9828046/Late_Devonian_oceanic_anoxic_events_and_biotic_crises_Rooted_in_the_evolution_of_vascular_land_plants_1995_GSA_Today_
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/5/3/pdf/i1052-5173-5-3-sci.pdf

Algeo, T.J. and S.E. Scheckler. 1998. "Terrestrial-marine
teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the
evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and
marine anoxic events." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 353: 113-130.
http://www.academia.edu/9838637/Terrestrial-marine_teleconnections_in_the_Devonian_Links_between_the_evolution_of_land_plants_weathering_processes_and_marine_anoxic_events_1998_Philosophical_Transactions_Royal_Society_of_London_
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/353/1365/113
http://www.jstor.org/stable/56580?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Algeo, T.J., S.E. Scheckler and J. B. Maynard. 2000.
"Effects of the Middle to Late Devonian spread of vascular
land plants on weathering regimes, marine biota, and
global climate." pp. 213-236. In: P.G. Gensel and D.
Edwards (eds.). 2001 Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary
and Environmental Approaches. Columbia Univ. Press:
New York.

Yours,

Paul H.



Sunday, 28 June 2015

Paper About A.D. 774–775 Carbon-14 Spike

Paper About A.D. 774–775 Carbon-14 Spike

Below is an interesting paper about the
A.D. 774–775 Carbon-14 Spike.

Timothy Jull, A. J., I. P. Panyushkina, T. E. Lange,
V. V. Kukarskih, V. S. Myglan, K. J. Clark, M. W.
Salzer, G. S. Burr, and S. W. Leavitt, 2014, Excursions
in the 14C record at A.D. 774–775 in tree rings from
Russia and America. Geophysical Research Letters.
10.1002/2014GL059874, 7 pp.

“Our results confirm an abrupt ~ 15‰ 14C activity
increase from A.D. 774 to 776, the size and now the
hemispheric extent of which suggest that an
extraterrestrial influence on radiocarbon production
is mostlikely responsible.

Abstract - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059874/abstract

PDF file – http://tinyurl.com/Carbon14Spike

774–775 carbon-14 spike - http://tinyurl.com/774775carbon14 and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/774–775_carbon-14_spike

Yours,

Paul H.

Great Canadian Broadcasting Corporation About Science

Great Canadian Broadcasting Corporation About Science

Below is a great Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
series about science:

Science Under Seige, Part 1
http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/science-under-siege-part-1-1.3091552

Science Under Seige, Part 2
http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/science-under-siege-part-2-1.3098865

Science Under Seige, Part 3
http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/science-under-siege-part-3-1.3101953

http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas

Part 2 has a great commentary about the difference
between scientists and lawyers. It applies perfectly
to some popular authors who write about fringe
archaeology and fringe catastrophism.

There is also a series about “Who owns Ancient Art”
http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/who-owns-ancient-art-part-1-1.3106590
http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/who-owns-ancient-art-part-2-1.3119029

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 26 June 2015

Key Link in Turtle Evolution Discovered

Key Link in Turtle Evolution Discovered

This Ancient Creature Shows How the Turtle
Got Its Shell, Smithsonian, June 24, 2015
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/ist/?next=/science-nature/ancient-creature-shows-how-turtle-got-its-shell-180955688/

How The Turtle Got Its Shell
All things Considered, June 24, 2015
http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/24/416657576/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell

Key link in turtle evolution discovered
Phys.Org, June 24, 2015
http://phys.org/news/2015-06-key-link-turtle-evolution.html

The paper is:

Schoch, R. R., and H.-D. Sues, 2015, A Middle
Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the
turtle body plan. Nature, Published online 24 June 2015
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature14472.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 23 June 2015

NASA Finds Weird Features On Ceres

NASA Finds Weird Features On Ceres

A Ceres of Weird Events by Phil Plait
Slate Magazine, June 22, 2015
http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2015/06/22/ceres_dawn_images_reveal_a_5_km_tall_mountain.html

Dawn Survey Orbit Image 10
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/details.php?id=PIA19578

This image, taken by NASA's Dawn spacecraft,
shows an intriguing mountain on dwarf planet
Ceres protruding from a relatively smooth area.
Scientists estimate that this feature rises about
3 miles (5 kilometers) above the surface

What the Heck Are Those Spots on Ceres?
By Phil Plait, Slate Magazine, June 10, 2015
http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2015/06/10/ceres_weird_white_spots_are_still_weird.html

yours,

Paul H.