Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Monday, 31 March 2008

Bad Science on ancient meteorite impactor?, Part 2

Bad Science on ancient meteorite impactor?, Part 2

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 31 21:26:24 EDT 2008

meteorite-list at meteoritecentral.com

Sterling K. Webb wrote:

“See, I started out sceptical, and now I'm not so sure...

This collector considers "köfelsite" as an impactite:
http://www.somerikko.net/collection/index.html
"Age between 8000 and 16000 years is from glass..
Theory has been recently presented that köfels has been
formed during a giant landslide about 9000 years ago.
That landslide was so huge that rock melted because
friction. So there is still a possibility that Köfels is not
an impact structure. However, there is lots of big
landslides in Alps but no other similar cases is found
yet. Also PDF's in quartz has been reported in samples
from Köfels, and PDF's are produced only by impacts."
http://www.somerikko.net/old/geo/imp/refer.htm

There has been iridium analysis, but it's inconclusive.”

The origin of the pumice, called either “hyalomylonites” or
“frictionites” associated with the Köfels has been studied in great
detail by:

Erismann, T. H., 1977, Der bimsstein von Köfels impaktit oder
friktionit?. Material und Technik. vol. 5, pp.. 190–196.

and Erismann, T. H., H. Heuberger, and E. Preuss, 1977, Der
Bimsstein von Köfels (Tirol), ein Bergsturz-“Friktionit. Mineralogy
and Petrology. vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 67-119.

The abstract to Erismann et al. (1977) stated:

“For more than a century the genesis of the fused rocks
found in the landslide masses of Köfels (Ötztal, Tyrol)
has remained enigmatic. The initially promoted hypothesis
of a volcanic origin could not be backed by sufficient
evidence. So in the last decade the possibility of a meteorite
impact has been accepted by a large number of scientists.
It is, however, by no means in accordance with all facts
observed. In 1971, Preuss presented the idea of the melting
heat being generated by the friction between sliding and
stationary rock surfaces. As this working hypothesis
proved to be in good accordance with petrographic and
geomorphological evidence it was studied in detail by the
authors in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Laboratory
for Testing Materials (EMPA). The corresponding research
project (ldquoBig Sliderdquo) was based on a careful
analysis of the effects of the energy generated by the
landslide. By setting up plausible models for movement,
heat generation, and heat transfer and by solving the
resulting differential equations it became evident that —
as far as the landslide masses did not glide on a very
thick layer of stone powder (dynamically a rather
unprobable supposition)-large amounts of fused rock
(ldquofrictioniterdquo, for definition see chapter 2.2) must
have been produced. The enormous size of the particular
landslide was recognized as a determining factor in this
connection. The theoretical results thus obtained could
be backed experimentally by producting artificial pumice
under conditions approaching those of the Köfels landslide.”

Erismann et al. (1977) fairly well demonstrates that the estimated
kinetic energy of the rock mass displaced by the landslide would
have generated the heat necessary to melt the rock and form the
“pumice”, which they called “frictionite”. The frictionite occurs
in dikes several decimeters to meter thick at the top of the landslide
deposit.

The Köfels landslide, about 2 to 3 cubic kilometers in mass, is the
**largest** landslide in Europe. It is not surprising that it has some
unique aspects to it being the only one of its size.

Another study, which examined glass found in the Köfels landslide is:

Masch, L., H. R. Wenk, and E. Preuss, 1985. Electron microscopy
study of hyalomylonites-evidence for frictional melting in landslides.
Tectonophysics. vol. 115, pp. 131–160.

They studied glass, which they called “hyalomylonite”, which occurs
in the Köfels landslide deposits. It differs from frictionite in that it
occurs as veins 1 mm to 3 cm thick and lacks porosity. from their
analysis, they concluded that the hyalomylonite was created by
kinetic heating of the rock during the landslide.

Similar hyalomylonite / frictionite deposits has also been found in
megalandslides in the Himalayas of Nepal and Peru as discussed by:

Heuberger, H., L. Masch, E. Preuss, and A. Schrocker, 1984,
Quaternary Landslides and Rock Fusion in Central Nepal and in the
Tyrolean Alps. Mountain Research and Developments. vol. 4, no. 4,
pp. 345-362.

Weidinger, J. T., J.-M. Schramm, and R. Surenian, 1996, On preparatory
causal factors, initiating the prehistoric Tsergo Ri landslide (Langthang
Himal, Nepal). Tectonophysics. vol. 260, no. 1-3, pp. 95-107.

and

Legros, F., J.-M. Cantagrel, and B. Devouard, 2000, Pseudotachylyte
(Frictionite) at the Base of the Arequipa Volcanic Landslide Deposit
(Peru): Implications for Emplacement Mechanisms. The Journal of
Geology. vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 601–611.

Hermanns et al. (2006) presents significant problem for the impact
hypothesis in that he found that there is evidence of multiple landslides.
It was the largest and youngest of these landslides that created the
frictionite when it slid over the older deposits. To explain multiple
periods of landsliding, a person would have to argue that two different
impacts occurred at virtually same spot at different times separated by
a significant period of time.

Hermanns et al. (2006) also noted of the younger deposits, which
contain the frictionite:

“Pieces of wood recovered from a reconnaissance gallery
in the Tauferberg gave a conventional 14C age of 8710+/-150
years BP (Heuberger, 1966), and an AMS 14C age of 8705+/-
55 years BP (Ivy-Ochs et al., 1998),”

References Cited:

Hermanns, R.., L. Blikra, M. Naumann, B. Nilsen, K. Panthi, D.
Stromeyer, O. Longva, 2006, Examples of multiple rock-slope collapses
from Köfels (Ötz valley, Austria) and western Norway. Engineering
Geology. vol. 83, no. 1-3, pp. 94-108.

-- Alledged PDFs --

Impacts and meteorites
http://www.somerikko.net/old/geo/imp/refer.htm

The above web page, states

“Also PDF's in quartz has been reported in samples
from Köfels, and PDF's are produced only by impacts.”

The alleged PDFs found in the deposits of the Köfels landslide were
examined by Dr. Christian Koeberl according to:

Deutsch, A., C. Koeberl, J.D. Blum, B.M. French, B.P. Glass,
R. Grieve, P. Horn, E.K. Jessberger, G. Kurat, W.U. Reimold,
J. Smit, D. stoffler, and S.R. Taylor, 1994, The impact-flood
connection: Does it exist? Terra Nova. vol. 6, pp. 644-650.

This paper reports that Dr. Koeberl found them **not** to be PDFs.
Rather, he identified them to be nonPDF llamellar deformation
features typical of tectonic, not impact, processes.

How these llamellar features would have formed is discussed by:

Leroux, H., and J.-C. Doukhan, 1993, Dynamic deformation of quartz
in the landslide of Koefels, Austria. European Journal of Mineralogy.
vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 893-902.

-- Additional Note --

Sorenson et al. (2003) concluded:

“Analysis of the Köfels sturzstrom seems to indicate
that most aspects can be explained without recourse to
exotic emplacement scenarios. The bulk of the material
resembles the debris from an energetic but conventional
landslide.”

Reference Cited

Sorensen, S.-A., and Berthold Bauer, 2003, On the dynamics of
the Köfels sturzstrom. Geomorphology, vol. 54, no. 1-2, pp. 11-19.

Yours,

Paul H.

Bad Science on ancient meteorite impactor? part 1

Bad Science on ancient meteorite impactor? part 1

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 31 17:08:00 EDT 2008

In “Bad Science on ancient meteorite impactor?”, it
was stated by McCartney Taylor:

“I don't agree with most of these conclusions. I motion to have this
work peer reviewed by meteoriticists. Do I hear a second?”

At http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-03/uob-cct033108.php
and paraphrased in thttp://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/03/31/kofels_asteroid/
it was stated:

“The giant landslide centred at Köfels in Austria
is 500m thick and five kilometres in diameter
and has long been a mystery since geologists
first looked at it in the 19th century. The
conclusion drawn by research in the middle
20th century was that it must be due to a
very large meteor impact because of the
evidence of crushing pressures and explosions.”

The impact theory for the formation of the Köfels landslide has
been discredited by various published papers. They include:

Sorensen, S.-A., and Berthold Bauer, 2003, On the dynamics of
the Köfels sturzstrom. Geomorphology, vol. 54, no. 1-2,
pp. 11-19.

Bruckl, E. P., 2004, Cause-Effect Models of Large Landslides.
Natural Hazards. vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 291-314.

Deutsch, A., C. Koeberl, J.D. Blum, B.M. French, B.P. Glass,
R. Grieve, P. Horn, E.K. Jessberger, G. Kurat, W.U. Reimold,
J. Smit, D. stoffler, and S.R. Taylor, 1994, The impact-flood
connection: Does it exist? Terra Nova. vol. 6, pp. 644-650.

Hermanns, R.., L. Blikra, M. Naumann, B. Nilsen, K. Panthi, D.
Stromeyer, O. Longva, 2006, Examples of multiple rock-slope
collapses from Köfels (Ötz valley, Austria) and western Norway.
Engineering Geology. vol. 83, no. 1-3, pp. 94-108.

and

Kubik, P.W., S. Ivy-Ochs, J. Masarik, M.. R. Frank, and C.
Schlüchter, 1998, 10Be and 26Al production rates deduced from
an instantaneous event within the dendro-calibration curve: the
landslide at Köfels, Oetz Valley, Austria. Earth and Planetary
Sciences Letters. vol.161, pp. 231-241.

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 27 March 2008

Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Thu Mar 27 09:59:24 EDT 2008

Schmitz, B., David A. T. Harper, Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Svend
Stouge, Carl Alwmark, Anders Cronholm, Stig M. Bergström, Mario
Tassinari & Wang Xiaofeng, 2008, Asteroid breakup linked to the Great
Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Nature Geoscience. vol. 1, no. 1,
pp. 49-53.

http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v1/n1/abs/ngeo.2007.37.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Press Release About Ullapool, Scotland, Impact

Press Release About Ullapool, Scotland, Impact

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Thu Mar 27 12:19:54 EDT 2008

Britain’s biggest meteorite impact found: Evidence of the biggest meteorite ever
to hit the British Isles has been found by scientists from the University of Aberdeen
and the University of Oxford, University of Aberdeen.


http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/release.php?id=1275


Also, look at "Precambrian impact ejectablanket found in Scotland" at:


http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2008-March/043254.html

and

http://www.gsajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1130%2FG24454A.1

Yours,

Paul H.

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Impact Disputed

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Impact Disputed

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Thu Mar 27 16:27:05 EDT 2008

Back in 2003, it was argued that “an abrupt and distinct
change in magnetic grain size (from multidomain (MD) to
single domain (SD) magnetite) across” a negative carbon
isotope excursion and initial Paleocene-Eocene Thermal
Maximum sediments underlying the New Jersey
continental margin is indicative of an extraterrestrial
impact at the beginning of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal
Maximum. Kent et al. (2003) argued that the SD magnetite
condensed from an impact ejecta plume. However, this
conclusion has been disputed by three publications, which
where published in 2007. They are:

1. Kopp, R. E., and others, 2007, Magnetofossil spike during the
Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance,
rock magnetic, and electron microscopy evidence from Ancora,
New Jersey, United States. Paleoceanography vol. 22, PA4103,
doi:10.1029/2007PA001473, 2007

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2007PA001473.shtml

http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~jkirschvink/pdfs/KoppEtAlEoceneMagnetofossilSpike2007.pdf

In part the abstract states:

“This result, the first identification of ancient biogenic magnetite
using FMR, argues that the anomalous magnetic properties of
the PETM sediments are not produced by an impact. They
instead reflect environmental changes along the eastern margin of
North America during the PETM that led to enhanced production
and/or preservation of magnetofossils.”

2. Lippert, P. C., and Zachos, J. C., 2007, A biogenic origin for
anomalous fine-grained magnetic material at the Paleocene-
Eocene boundary at Wilson Lake, New Jersey. Paleoceanography.
vol. 22, VOL. 22, PA4104, doi:10.1029/2007PA001471, 2007

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2007PA001471.shtml

http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~jzachos/pubs/Lippert_Zachos_2007.pdf

In part the abstract states:

“One suggested source for the carbon, a cometary impactor, is
based on the sudden appearance and high concentration of single-
domain (SD) magnetite in Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary
cores from the North Atlantic continental margin.” and

“Our results show a similar increase in SD material but
demonstrate that the magnetic material has a biogenic origin.”

3. Kopp, R. E., 2007, The identification and interpretation of
microbial biogeomagnetism. Unpublished PhD dissertation,
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

http://etd.caltech.edu/etd/available/etd-04122007-135320/

“Anomalous magnetic properties of clay deposited in the Atlantic
Coastal Plain, New Jersey, during the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal
Maximum (PETM) led previous authors to speculate that an
extraterrestrial impact triggered the PETM. Reexamination of
the clay using FMR and transmission electron microscopy
reveals instead that the clay hosts abundant magnetofossils. The
first identification of ancient biogenic magnetite using FMR
indicates that the anomalous magnetic properties of PETM
sediments were not produced by an impact, but instead reflect
paleoenvironmental changes along the western North Atlantic
margin.”

There is a related abstract at:

http://gsa..confex.com/gsa/2007AM/finalprogram/abstract_123753.htm

Reference Cited:

Kent, D. V., B. S. Cramer, L. Lanci, D. Wang, J. D. Wright,
and R. Van der Voo, 2003, A case for a comet impact trigger for
the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum and carbon isotope
excursion, Earth Planetary Science Letters. vol. 211, pp . 13–26.

Yours,

Paul H.


Monday, 24 March 2008

Shocked Quartz Found at Upheaval Dome, Utah

Shocked Quartz Found at Upheaval Dome, Utah

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 24 14:37:25 EDT 2008

Dear Ted,

What is the citation for this study? (Where was it published?)

Ted Bunch on Mon March 24 wrote:

“Matt - In a study we did several years ago, we
found one shocked quartz grain per 7000-12000
grains in various sedimentary rocks and glacial
tillites.”

On 3/24/08 9:51 AM, "mmorgan at mhmeteorites.com" asked:

“really makes me wonder how much shocked
quartz could be found as "background".”

Yours,

Paul H.

Shocked Quartz Found at Upheaval Dome, Utah

Shocked Quartz Found at Upheaval Dome, Utah

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 24 12:35:10 EDT 2008

Buchner, E., and T. Kenkmann, 2008, Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA:
Impact origin confirmed. Geology. vol.36, no. 3, pp. 227-230.

In part, this abstract stated:

“In this study, we document, for the first time, shocked
quartz grains from this crater in sandstones of the
Jurassic Kayenta Formation. The investigated grains
contain multiple sets of decorated planar deformation
features. ... The shocked quartz grains were found in
the periphery of the central uplift in the northeastern
sector of the crater, which most likely represents the
cross range crater sector.”

http://www.gsajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1130%2FG24287A.1

Yours,

Paul H.

Precambrian impact ejecta blanket found in Scotland

Precambrian impact ejecta blanket found in Scotland

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 24 12:09:42 EDT 2008

Amor, K., Stephen P.Hesselbo, Don Porcelli, Scott Thackrey, and
John Parnell, 2008, A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from
Scotland. Geology..vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 303-306.

In part theabstract reads:

“The StacFada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Group in Scotland
haspreviously been described as volcanic in origin. However,
shockedquartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressure shock
metamorphism, while chromium isotopevalues and elevated
abundancesof platinum group metals and siderophile elements
indicateaddition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit is
reinterpretedhere as having an impact origin.”

This unit isas much as 20 meters thick in places.

http://www.gsajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1130%2FG24454A.1


Related paper:


Young, G. M., 2002, Stratigraphy and geochemistry of volcanic
mass flows in the Stac Fada Member of the Stoer Group,
Torridonian, NW Scotland. Royal Society of Edinburgh Transactions:
Earth Sciences. vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 1-16.





Yours,

Paul H.

Australasian strewn field extended to Antarctica

Australasian strewn field extended to Antarctica

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Mon Mar 24 11:59:10 EDT 2008

Folco, L., P.
Rochette, N. Perchiazzi, M. D'Orazio, M.A. Laurenzi, and M.
Tiepolo, 2008, Microtektites
from Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains.
Geology. vol.36, no. 4, pp. 291-294.

They documented a
microtektite (microscopic impact glass particles)
strewn field in the Victoria LandTransantarctic Mountains, Antarctica.
They found "the physical and chemicalproperties define a coherent
population with a geochemical affinity to Australasianmicrotektites
and compatible Quaternary 40Ar-39Ar formation age." They argue
"that
Transantarctic Mountain microtektites (TAMM) define the
southern extension of theAustralasian strewn field."

http://www.gsajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1130%2FG24528A.1

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 21 March 2008

Earth, Mars, Moon Have Different Origin, Study Says

Earth, Mars, Moon Have Different Origin, Study Says

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Fri Mar 21 14:08:37 EDT 2008

Earth, Mars, Moon Have Different Origin, Study Says
by Anne Minard, National Geographic News, March 19, 2008

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/03/080319-earth-mars.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 13 March 2008

Meteorite fragment stolen from museum

Meteorite fragment stolen from museum

Paul bristolia at yahoo.com
Thu Mar 13 11:00:39 EDT 2008

Meteorite fragment stolen from museum
Associated Press, March 13, 2008
http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080313/LOCAL/80313031


Museum may upgrade security after meteorite slice is stolen
WLFI.com, IN, March 13, 2008
http://www.wlfi.com/Global/story.asp?S=8008964&nav=menu591_3


Yours,


Paul H.