Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Sunday, 30 September 2012

Computers Used To Find New Fossil Sites

Computers Used To Find New Fossil Sites

Artificial Intelligence Used to Home in on New
Fossil Sites (In the desert, researchers demonstrate
that an artificial neural network can pinpoint
new fossil-rich sites, paving the way for more
efficient digs) by Charles Q. Choi, Scientific American
Sept. 28, 2012,
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=artificial-intelligence-used-home-in-new-fossil-sites

Fossil Finding Goes High Tech, Smithsonian Blog
Sept. 28, 2012,
http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smartnews/2012/09/fossil-finding-goes-high-tech/

Then there is:

Computers Are Good Fossil Hunters (Africa,
Google Earth) Smithsonian Blog,
http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/hominids/2011/11/computers-are-good-fossil-hunters/

Jackson K. N., L. and J. Hlusko, 2011, Fine-tuning
paleoanthropological reconnaissance with high-
resolution satellite imagery: the discovery of 28
new sites in Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution.
vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 680–684,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248410001429

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 25 September 2012

Valley Fever (coccidioidomycosis) (Includes Online Map)

Valley Fever (coccidioidomycosis) (Includes Online Map)
(click on image to enlarge)
Source: University of Arizona
Andrew C. Comrie Recent & Ongoing Research

In “Valley Fever (coccidioidomycosis) Mohave desert
risk for meteorite hunters and rockhounders et al” at
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2012-September/087421.html
Dirk wrote:

“Ran across this tidbit about an unknown (to me)
RISK FACTOR while Mohave meteorite hunting (in a
article about fossil bugs):
http://inyo.coffeecup.com/site/barstowfossils/barstowfossils.html

You are quite right, Valley / San Jaoquin Fever is a risk
factor for a lot of people who hunt for meteorites, rocks,
fossils, minerals, gold, and other stuff within the southwestern
United States. Areas in which it is a serious concern can
be seen in a map showing the distribution of valley fever can
be found at http://www.u.arizona.edu/~comrie/map_color.gif .
It is part of “Andrew C. Comrie Recent & Ongoing Research
Projects” at http://www.u.arizona.edu/~comrie/projects.htm .

As people have noted in other posts, the inhabitants of
Tucson and Phoenix live and work in the middle of the
high risk area. However, valley fever in endemic to a good
chunk of Texas and parts of other states. Even outside of
the maps areas, i.e. Utah, it can be a concern.

A nice, general discussion and overview of valley fever
for a person, who is not a trained in medicine, to read is:

Fink, M. T., and K. K. Komatsu, 2001, The Fungus Among
Us: Coccidioidomycosis (“Valley Fever”) and Archaeologists.
in D. A. Poirier and K. L. Feder, eds., pp. 21 -30, Dangerous
places : health, safety, and archaeology. Bergin & Garvey,
Westport, Connecticut.
https://catalyst.library.jhu.edu/catalog/bib_2173414

Although it is a risk to meteorite hunters and rockhounds,
archaeologists and paleontologists really have to be
careful about where they work within the southwestern
United States. For example, this paper notes that between
1954 and 1978 there were 12 known outbreaks that
involved multiple people at archaeological and
paleontological excavations. Also, valley fever is a problem
at Sharktooth Hill, a popular place to dig for Middle
Miocene vertebrate fossils near Bakersfield, California.

Some web pages about Coccidioidomycosis are:

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley / San Jaoquin Fever), California
http://www.cdph.ca.gov/healthinfo/discond/Pages/Coccidioidomycosis.aspx
http://ehis.fullerton.edu/OHS/InjuryAndIllnessPrevention/ValleyFeverInformation.aspx

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever), Arizona
http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/oids/epi/disease/cocci/

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), Utah
http://health.utah.gov/epi/fact_sheets/cocci.html
http://health.utah.gov/epi/diseases/cocci/plan/Coccidioidomycosis%20Plan_03242011.pdf

Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)
http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/coccidioidomycosis/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccidioidomycosis

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Finding Fossilized Insects in the Mojave

Finding Fossilized Insects in the Mojave

Finding Fossilized Insects in the Mojave
by Farrall S. Smith, Desert USA,
http://www.desertusa.com/animals/find-fossil-insects.html

Other online material about the Barstow fossil insects.

Fossil Insects And Vertebrates On The Mojave Desert, California,
http://inyo.coffeecup.com/site/barstowfossils/barstowfossils.html

Fossilized Insect Nodule Project Overview (A brief look
at the fossilized insects found within Calcium carbonate
rock nodules found in the Mojave Desert.) by Farrall S. Smith
http://www.scribd.com/doc/31877812/Fossilized-Insect-Nodule-Project-Overview

Miller, K.B. and S.H. Lubkin, 2001, Calicovatellus
petrodytes Miller and Lubkin, a new genus and species
of primitive vatelline diving beetle (Coleoptera:
Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Vatellini) from the
Miocene Barstow Formation, Southern California,
USA. Journal of Paleontology. vol. 75, pp. 890-894.

PDF file at
http://whitinglab.byu.edu/Portals/61/docs/KellyBMiller/KM-12_calicovatellus.pdf

Link at
http://whitinglab.byu.edu/Personnel/FormerLabPersonnel/KellyBMiller/Publications.aspx

Ostracod fossils from the Barstow Formation location:

Wilkinson, I. P., P. R. Wilby, M. Williams, D. J. Siveter,
A. A. Page, L. Leggitt. and D. A. Riley, 2010, Exceptionally
preserved ostracodes from a Middle Miocene
palaeolake, California, USA. Journal of the Geological
Society. vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 817-825. PDF file at
http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/10079/1/Miocene_Ostracod_from_Barstow.pdf

Best wishes,

Paul H.
--

Monday, 24 September 2012

New BLM Rules - Proposition 120 con`t

New BLM Rules - Proposition 120 con`t

I wrote and was quoted as saying:

"Also, you may find state officials no different, or even
worse, than federal officials with which to deal. Be
careful for what you wish."

In “New BLM Rules - Proposition 120” at,
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2012-September/087391.html
Mark replied;

“It is easier to deal with locally elected officials who
are at most 2 or 3 hours away from your home. I
have had success having face time with state officials,
but the Feds... hopeless. They are often inaccessible,
unaccountable and won't give you the time of day. “

What I have found, is this is not true of the people, who
live out of state. I have had the same “won't give you the
time of day” experience with state officials also. Often
my experience has often been that if a person is not a
resident and cannot vote in a state, as far as some state
officials are concern, a person can just go jump in a very
deep sinkhole. Dealing with state officials might be fine
if a person lives in the same state as the state official.
Otherwise, it can be just as frustrating as dealing with
federal officials. If a person is nonresident, I have found
that state officials are just as inaccessible as some, but
definitely not all, federal officials can be. The only
exception to this are people at state geological surveys,
who I have found to be without exception universally
accessible.

As much as there needs to be changes to BLM policies
towards collecting rocks, minerals, fossils, and meteorites,
they appear still to be far better than those practiced by
Arizona in respect to its general state lands, which are
not officially part of their parks according to what I have
found online. For example,

1. I found one comment about mineral collecting on state
land in Arizona on their “Mineral Management Program”
web page at
http://www.land.state.az.us/programs/natural/mineral_leasing.htm#commonVariety

It states,

“**Note: Recreational mining or mineral collecting on
State Trust land is prohibited.”

2. The “Mining Activities on State Trust Land” web page at
http://mines.az.gov/Info/aztrustlands.html , states:

“Recreational mining or mineral collecting on State Trust
land is prohibited.”

3. “RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES NOT ALLOWED ON STATE
LANDS UNDER ANY PERMIT” at:
http://www.tucsonhunting.com/State_Land.php

“Collecting or removing natural products (rocks, stone,
soil, fossils, mineral specimens, cacti, saguaro or cholla
skeletons, plants (live or dead), or firewood for home
use”

4. The “Arizona rockhounding” web page at
http://mines.az.gov/Rec_Ed/rockhound.html guides people
to BLM land for rock and mineral collecting.

5. The “Gold Panning” web at
http://mines.az.gov/Rec_Ed/goldpanning.html states:

“In general, gold panning is allowed on Bureau of Land
Management and Forest Service Land where there are
no existing claims.”

No mention is made of where it is allowed on Arizona
state lands. The impression that I get is that they want
rock collectors to come to visit Arizona and spend money
However, they want them to stay off state land and do
all of their rock hounding on BLM land. I would suspect
that they have the same feeling for meteorite collectors.

6. Also, there is “Date Creek Crystal location” at:
http://www.nuggetshooter.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=16892

“I have received a warning ( not at this spot) and advised that
my name will be on file and that another violation will be BAD!

Don't blame me if YOU get caught!"

7. Finally, there is “Hunting on Arizona State Land?“ at:
http://www.nuggetshooter.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=15598

“State land is not open for prospecting. Getting caught there
is an instant trip to jail,and a big fine.”

"Recreational mining or metal detecting on state trust land is
prohibited. State trust land is not public land period. Simply
being on the land without the proper permit is trespassing,and
no permit allows for metal detecting."

Judging from what I have found, the discussion on the above
pages likely also applies to meteorites. It appears from these
web pages that changing from the BLM to the state of Arizona
is not going to help anything for meteorite collectors.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

New BLM Rules - Proposition 120

New BLM Rules - Proposition 120

In “New BLM Rules” at
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2012-September/087388.html
Jim Wooddell wrote,

“In light of these new meteorite rules, the people
of AZ have Proposition 120 to consider. In a nut
shell, it's AZ telling the Feds to go pound sand and
reclaim sovereignty they should have had in the
first place.... which is a states right! Something we
all should seriously look at and consider. I know
politics are vodoo here...so I wont state an my
opinion. It does directly effect meteorite hunting
in the State of AZ. How this plays out will be
interesting, to say the least.”

There is an article about Proposition 120 in:

Proposition Challenges Control Of Federal Lands
Move to seize 25 million acres divides candidates
for Legislature by Pete Aleshire, Payson Roundup,
September 23, 2012.

http://www.paysonroundup.com/news/2012/sep/14/proposition-challenges-control-federal-lands/

The article states:

”Many opponents maintain that the whole crusade
amounts to a waste of time and effort, since federal
courts have repeatedly ruled that federal law takes
precedence over state law and that states have no
power to nullify federal law, including the landmark
Cooper v. Aaron case in 1958. The federal government
acquired much of Arizona from Mexico through the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican-
American War. The federal government acquired the
rest of the territory through the Gadsen Purchase. By
contrast, the 13 original colonies entered the union
with very little public land.

As a result, a number of independent legal scholars
have concluded that the federal courts would quickly
overturn the measure even if it passes, according to
an analysis of the proposition published by the
Morrison Institute for Public Policy.”

Look at:

Perkins, E. J., 2012, Understanding Arizona's Propositions:
2012 Series. Prop 120 – State Sovereignty Act. Morrison
Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, Phoenix,
Arizona

http://morrisoninstitute.asu.edu/2012-understanding-arizonas-propositions/2012-prop-120-state-sovereignty-act

I would not hold my breathe waiting for proposition
120 to change matters as far as the BLM goes.

Also, one result of proposition 120 would be to turn
all national parks, including the Grand Canyon, within
Arizona to the state of Arizona, who could then sell
this property to private individuals and corporation
to do what they want with them. Destroying all of the
national park system within Arizona seems to be a
steep price to pay for getting rid of BLM regulations
that people do not like.

Also, you may find state officials no different, or even
worse, than federal officials with which to deal. Be
careful for what you wish.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

It's a 'hole' lotta fun ("Cooradigbee crater")

It's a 'hole' lotta fun ("Cooradigbee crater")

In "It's a 'hole' lotta fun" at:
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2012-September/087340.html
Tom Randall wrote

“Cooradigbee crater? Anyone have any more info on this?

http://bit.ly/NHLhWu

The article is It's a 'hole' lotta fun” by Tim the
Yowie Man, Travel Section, The Age at

http://www.theage.com.au/travel/blogs/yowie-man/its-a-hole-lotta-fun-20120921-26cnh.html

There is a picture of the alleged crater at:

http://images.theage.com.au/2012/09/21/3654727/art353-yowie3-300x0.jpg

Given the small size of it and the indefinite location
it is hard to tell much about from a literature review
and without going there. Judging from the lack of
any well defined rim and any reported evidence other
than tilted rocks, it does not look at all promising. Still,
any definitive conclusion would have to come from
an onsite inspection by a professional or avocational
geologist.

The video does claim that rocks being “45 degrees to
the west” in one place and being “45 degrees to the
east” in another part of the area as evidence of an
impact. The Brindabella 1:100 000 Geological Map (Owen
and Wyborn 1979), Canberra 1:250,000 scale geologic
map (Gilligan 1974), Goulburn 1:250 000 Geological Map
(Johnson et al. 2010), and the Yass 1:100 000 Geological
Map (Colquhoun 2008), demonstrate that the area of
Lake Burrinjuck, New South Wales within which the
Cooradigbee Homestead (and “Cooradigbee Crater”) occurs
consist of tightly folded, faulted, and otherwise deformed
Early Devonian volcanic, volcanoclastic, and terrigeneous
sedimentary rocks. There is also a thick layer of folded and
faulted “massive to thin-bedded fossiliferous limestone
and calcareous shale” in the area of Wee Jasper. As a result,
a person will need more than tilted strata to argue for the
existence of a impact crater. Also, depending on the
location of this shallow topographic bowl, a person might
have to exclude the possibility it is a sinkhole.

For Google Earth fans, the location of the Cooradigbee
Homestead is 35 degrees, 3’, 49.73”S, and 148 degrees,
39’, 37.61” E.

Reference cited

Colquhoun G. P., A. Y. E. Warren, R. G. Cameron, A. J. Johnston,
and D. J. Pogson, 2008, Yass 1:100 000 Geological Sheet 8628,
2nd edition. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney.
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-100-000/yass-1100-000-geological-map
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-100-000#central

Gilligan, L. B., 1974, Canberra 1:250,000 Metallogenic Map.
Geological Survey of New South Wales, SI/55-16, Sydney, Australia.
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/mineral-maps-data/1-250-000/canberra-1250-000-metallogenic-map
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/mineral-maps-data/1-250-000

Johnston, A. J., M. M. Scott, O. D. Thomas, D. J. Pogson, A. Y. E.
Warren, L. Sherwin, G. P. Colquhoun, J .J. Watkins, R. G. Cameron,
G. P. Macrae and R. A. Glen., 2010, Goulburn 1:250 000
Geological Sheet SI/55-12, Provisional 2nd edition, Geological
Survey of New South Wales, Maitland.
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-250-001/goulburn-250k-geological-map
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-250-001

Owen, M. and D. Wyborn, 1979, Brindabella (NSW and ACT)
1:100 000 Geological Map First Edition, BMR, Canberra
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-100-000/brindabella-1100-000-geological-map
http://www.resources.nsw.gov.au/geological/geological-maps/1-100-000#central

For other Australian geological maps go to:

Scanned 1:250 000 Geology Maps of Australia
http://tinyurl.com/GeologicalMapsAustralia
http://www.geoscience.gov.au/index.html

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Saturday, 22 September 2012

Dawn Sees Hydrated Minerals On Giant Asteroid

Dawn Sees Hydrated Minerals On Giant Asteroid

Dawn Sees Hydrated Minerals On Giant Asteroid
ScienceDaily, Sept. 20, 2012,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120920202045.htm

Dawn Sees Hydrated Minerals on Giant Asteroid,
news release, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NSAS,
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2012-297
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/dawn/news/dawn20120920.html

The papers are:

Prettyman, T. H., et al., 2012, Elemental Mapping by
Dawn Reveals Exogenic H in Vesta's Regolith.
Science. Published Online September 20, 2012
DOI: 10.1126/science.1225354
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2012/09/19/science.1225354

Denevi, B. W., et al., 2012, Pitted Terrain on Vesta
and Implications for the Presence of Volatiles. Science.
Published Online September 20, 2012
DOI: 10.1126/science.1225374
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2012/09/19/science.1225374

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Friday, 21 September 2012

New "Big Impact" Theory (Eltanin asteroid impact)

New "Big Impact" Theory (Eltanin asteroid impact)

In “New "Big Impact" Theory” at
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2012-September/087243.html
Sterling K. Webb wrote:

“New "Big Impact" theory. In case you find the
references to a "new Ice Age" puzzling, I'll remind
you that it's the Ice Age that we in right now. Yes,
friends, we are in an Ice Age, at 5-7 C. below the
long-term norm.”

and

“Did a 'Forgotten' Meteor Have a Deadly, Icy Double-Punch?”
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120919103612.htm

This article refers to:

Goff, J., C. Chague-Goff, M. Archer, D. Dominey-Howes,
and C. Turney, 2012, The Eltanin asteroid impact:
possible South Pacific palaeomegatsunami footprint
and potential implications for the Pliocene-Pleistocene
transition. Journal of Quaternary Science. Article first
published online: 3 SEP 2012.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jqs.2571/abstract

Related to this is an interesting paper published online
in Geology. It is:

Gao, C., J. H. McAndrews, X. Wang, J. Menzies, C. L. Turton,
B. D. Wood, J. Pei, and C. Kodors, 2012, Glaciation of North
America in the James Bay Lowland, Canada, 3.5 Ma. geology.
First published online September 4, 2012
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2012/09/04/G33092.1.abstract

This provides evidence of glaciation in North America of
continental glaciations that are of a magnitude that is likely
comparable to Pleistocene glaciations started about 3.5
million years ago. This glaciation coincides with the
documented intensification of glaciation in the northwest
Pacific region about 3.45 million years ago. Thus, "Ice Ages"
were already in process a million years before the Eltanin
asteroid impact and it may have simply only accentuated,
if anything at all, climatic changes that had already started.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

New Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis Paper

New Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis Paper

There is a new paper about the Younger Dryas Impact
Hypothesis. It is:

LeCompte, M. A., C. Goodyear, M. N. Demitroff, D. Batchelor,
E. K. Vogel, C. Mooney, B. N. Rockf, and A. W. Seide, 2012,
Independent evaluation of conflicting microspherule results
from different investigations of the Younger Dryas impact
hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Published online before print September 17, 2012,
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208603109 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/09/12/1208603109

An article about it is:

Topper Site Supports Theory of Extraterrestrial Impact
12,900 Years Ago, Sci-Tech News, Sept. 20, 2012,
http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/article00599.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 19 September 2012

Trillions of carats' of industrial diamonds found in impact crater

Trillions of carats' of industrial diamonds found in impact crater

Russia reveals shiny state secret: It's awash in
diamonds, Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 17, 2012‎
http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Global-News/2012/0917/Russia-reveals-shiny-state-secret-It-s-awash-in-diamonds

Trillions of carats' of diamonds found under
Russian asteroid crater, Wired, Sept. 17, 2012
http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-09/18/russian-diamond-smorgasbord

Russia boasts of huge diamond field
Business Week, September 17, 2012
http://www.businessweek.com/ap/2012-09-17/russia-boasts-of-huge-diamond-field

On a lighter note:

Monday, 17 September 2012

Possible Middle Cambrian Impact Megabreccia, Queensland, Australia?

Possible Middle Cambrian Impact Megabreccia, Queensland, Australia?

Dear friends,

There is a PhD dissertation, which is accessible online
as PDF files that describes a Middle Cambrian megabreccia
in the Lawn Hill region, Australia. It is

Feltrin, L., 2006, Probabilistic and deterministic models of
Pb-Zn mineralisation and post-mineralisation megabreccia,
in the Lawn Hill region, Australia. unpublished PhD.
dissertation, James Cook University, Australia.

It can be downloaded from http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/1614/.

Chapter 7, “Catastrophic mass failure of a Middle Cambrian
platform margin, the Lawn Hill Megabreccia, Queensland,
Australia,” of this dissertation can be downloaded from
http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/1614/7/07chapter6.pdf .

Although the author does not favor an impact origin for
this megabreccia, he cannot fully ruled such an origin
for the Lawn Hill Megabreccia of Queensland, Australia.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later

Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later

Given the recent discussion about radioactive
materials, People on this list might be interested in
the PDF version of a paper about the radioactivity
of trinitie that can be found online. It is:

Parekh, P. P., T. M. Semkow, M. A. Torres, D. K. Haines,
J. M. Cooper, P. M. Rosenberg, and M. E. Kitto, 2006,
Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later. Journal of
Environmental Radioactivity. vol. 85, pp. 103-120

PDF file at:
http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/14439843/1449214542/name/Trinitite-JER-2006.pdf

Also, there is:

1. Pittauerová, D., nd, Trinitite - Radioactivity of trinitite
after 62 years. Radioactivity Measurements Laboratory.
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen,
Bremen, Germany. (talk)

PDF file at:
http://www.radioaktivitaet.uni-bremen.de/Seminar/Trinitite.pdf

2. Pittauerová, D., W. M. Kolb, J. C. Rosenstiel, and H. W.
Fischer, Radioactivity in Trinitite - a review and new
measurements. Proceedings of Third European IRPA
Congress 2010 June 14−16, Helsinki, Finland.

PDF file at:
http://www.radioaktivitaet.uni-bremen.de/downloads/Pittauerova_P16_31.pdf

3. Pittauerová, D., W. M. Kolb, J. C. Rosenstiel, and H. W.
Fischer, 2010, Radioactivity in Trinitite. Institute of
Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen,
Germany. (poster)

PDF file at:
http://www.radioaktivitaet.uni-bremen.de/downloads/Pittauerova_trinitite.pdf

4. Kay, S. L., 2008, Trinitie Varieties (Green, Red, Black &
Pearls) Nuclearon.

PDF file at:
http://www.radiochemistry.org/documents/pdf/trinitite_nuclearon_061608.pdf

5. Eby, N., N. Charnley, and J. Smoloiga, nd, Trinite - The
Atomic Rock, University of Massachusett, Lowell, Massachusetts.
http://faculty.uml.edu/Nelson_Eby/Research/Trinitite/NE_SE%20GSA%20trinitite%20presentation.pdf

and 6. Fey, F. L., Jr., 1967, Health Physics Survey of Trinity
Site. Report LA-3719 Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
University of California, Los Alamos, New Mexico.
http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/lib-www/la-pubs/00314894.pdf

Some related web pages are:

Trinitite
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite

Re: Trinitite is Still radioactive
http://www7.pair.com/arthur/meteor/archive/archive9/Nov99/msg00298.html

Re: Radioactive (Trinitite)
http://www7.pair.com/arthur/meteor/archive/archive9/Nov99/msg00377.html

Fake Trinitite - Mindat Mineralogy Messageboard
http://www.mindat.org/mesg-55-149528.html

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Sunday, 16 September 2012

Geiger Counters (Really - How do you detect Cobalt 60)

Geiger Counters (Really - How do you detect Cobalt 60)

In “Geiger Counters (Really - How do you detect Cobalt 60)” at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds/2012-September/038431.html
Doug Bank wrote,

“On top of this, my wife's company just had
a container of stainless steel and aluminum
from India rejected at the port in California
because they detected Cobalt 60. I would like
to know what kind of a detector could be used
to determine if any of the aluminum and stainless
steel in their factory may also have cobalt 60
contamination, and is it the same kind of
detector I might use with rocks and minerals.

J Bryan Kramer added,

“ Mexican hot metal:
http://scrippsnews.com/node/43575

This is a significant and in many ways scary problem.

Wikipedia has an interesting article about “hot metal”
in “Radioactive scrap metal” at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactive_scrap_metal
and a description of a major “hot metal” accident in
“Goiânia accident” at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goiania _accident .

As in case of all Wikipedia articles, they have to be
read with some caution, but both articles provide
a list of references that can be used by a person to
do their own research. Specifically interesting is:

1. Ortiz, P., V. Friedrich, J. Wheatley, and M. Oresegun,
1999, Lost & Found Dangers - Orphan Radiation
Sources Raise Global Concerns, IAEA Bulletin vol. 41,
p. 18-21.

http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull413/41302081821.pdf
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull413/index.shtml

2. International Atomic Energy Agency (nd) Reducing
Risks in the Scrap Metal Industry.
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Booklets/SealedRadioactiveSources/pdfs/handout_scrap.pdf



3. Kopsick, D., R. T. Martin Magold, and R. B. Pope, 2005,
An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception
& Managing Radioactively Contaminated Scrap.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C.
http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/docs/source-management/poster-int-protocol-unece.pdf

and 4. Anonymous (2011) International Conference on
Control and Management of Radioactive Material
Inadvertently Incorporated Into Scrap Metal (2009 :
Tarragona, Spain), International Atomic Energy Agency,
Vienna, Austria
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1502_web.pdf

Légaré, J.-M., nd, Detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal
http://www.sftext.com/radioprotection/cuba_detection_radio.html

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Saturday, 15 September 2012

New Paper About Moqui Marbles

New Paper About Moqui Marbles

Weber, K. A., T. L. Spanbauer, D. Wacey, M. R. Kilburn,
D. B. Loope, and R. M. Kettler, 2012, Biosignatures link
microorganisms to iron mineralization in a paleoaquifer.
Geology. vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 747-750.

Abstract at:
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/40/8/747.abstract

PDF file at
http://www.geosciences.unl.edu/~dloope/pdf/Weber2012.pdf

Best wishes,

Paul H.
--





Puzzling Little Martian Spheres That Don't Taste Like 'Blueberries

Puzzling Little Martian Spheres That Don't Taste Like 'Blueberries

NASA Mars Rover Opportunity Reveals Geological Mystery:
Spherical Objects Unlike Previously Found 'Blueberries'
ScienceDaily, September 14, 2012)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120914154003.htm

Puzzling Little Martian Spheres That Don't Taste Like
'Blueberries', NASA picture
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mer/multimedia/pia16139.html
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05564

NASA Mars rover finds a crunchy 'blueberry' surprise
New Scientist, Septemebr 15, 2012
http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2012/09/mars-rover-finds-a-crunchy-blu.html

Mars 'Blueberries': Iron Baubles Spotted By NASA
Opportunity Rover, Suggests Life Existed On Red
Planet, Huffington Post, Sept. 14, 2012
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/14/mars-iron-blueberries-indicates-presence-life_n_1882138.html

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Opportunity Finds Blueberry "Patch"on Mars

Opportunity Finds Blueberry "Patch"on Mars

NASA Mars Rover Opportunity Reveals Geological Mystery:
Spherical Objects Unlike Previously Found 'Blueberries'
ScienceDaily, September 14, 2012)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120914154003.htm

Puzzling Little Martian Spheres That Don't Taste Like
'Blueberries', NASA picture
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/mer/multimedia/pia16139.html
http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05564

NASA Mars rover finds a crunchy 'blueberry' surprise
New Scientist, Septemebr 15, 2012
http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2012/09/mars-rover-finds-a-crunchy-blu.html

Mars 'Blueberries': Iron Baubles Spotted By NASA
Opportunity Rover, Suggests Life Existed On Red
Planet, Huffington Post, Sept. 14, 2012
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/14/mars-iron-blueberries-indicates-presence-life_n_1882138.html

A possibly related paper is:

Weber, K. A., T. L. Spanbauer, D. Wacey, M. R. Kilburn,
D. B. Loope, and R. M. Kettler, 2012, Biosignatures link
microorganisms to iron mineralization in a paleoaquifer.
Geology. vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 747-750.
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/40/8/747.abstract

PDF file at http://www.geosciences.unl.edu/~dloope/pdf/Weber2012.pdf

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Saturday, 8 September 2012

World’s Longest Fossilized Track Records Animal's Death March

World’s Longest Fossilized Track Records Animal's Death March

Stunning Discovery: World’s Longest Fossilized
‘Death Track’, Sci-News, August 30, 212
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/article00554.html
http://www.sci-news.com/images/2012/08/trackway_hi_res.jpg
http://www.sci-news.com/images/2012/08/image_554_2.jpg

Fossil records 'crab' death march
by Nick Crumpton, BBC News, September 7, 2012
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19514333

the paper is:

Lomax, D. R., and C. A. Racay, 2012, A Long
Mortichnial Trackway of Mesolimulus walchi
from the Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Lithographic
Limestone near Wintershof, German. Ichnos:
An International Journal for Plant and Animal
Traces. vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 175-183.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10420940.2012.702704

Related articles;

Schmid, D. U., R. R. Leinfelder, and G. Schweigert, 2005,
Stratigraphy and Palaeoenvironments of the Upper
Jurassic of Southern Germany. Zitteliana. Series B,
Reihe B26, pp. 31-56.
http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11997/1/zitteliana_2005_b26_03.pdf

Koch, R., and C. Weiss, 2005, Field Trip A: Basin-
Platform Transition in Upper Jurassic Lithographic
Limestones and Dolomites of the Northern
Franconian Alb (Germany). Zitteliana. Series B,
Reihe B26, pp. 57-70.
http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11998/1/zitteliana_2005_b26_04.pdf

Roper, M., 2005, Field Trip B: East Bavarian
Plattenkalk – Different Types of Upper
Kimmeridgian to Lower Tithonian Plattenkalk
Deposits and Facies. Zitteliana. Series B,
Reihe B26, pp. 57-70.
http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11999/1/zitteliana_2005_b26_05.pdf

Roper, M., 2005, Field Trip C: Lithographic
Limestones and Plattenkalk Deposits of the
Solnhofen and Mörnsheim Formations near
Eichstätt and Solnhofen. Zitteliana. Series B,
Reihe B26, pp. 71-86.
http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/12000/1/zitteliana_2005_b26_06.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

--

Friday, 7 September 2012

Counterfeit fossils undermine research projects

Counterfeit fossils undermine research projects

Counterfeit fossils undermine research projects
by Cheng Yingqi, China Daily, September 5, 2012
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-09/06/content_15737151.htm or http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2012/09/counterfeit-fossils-undermine-research.html

Author retracts PNAS paper about alleged
Pliocene cheetah fossil that critics said was
a fake, Retraction Watch, August 20, 2012,
http://retractionwatch.wordpress.com/2012/08/20/author-retracts-pnas-about-alleged-pliocine-cheetah-fossil-that-had-been-questioned/

Best wishes,

Paul H.
--

Re: Sudbury impact fallout layer in Michigan

Re: Sudbury impact fallout layer in Michigan

There is a PDF version of a field trip guidebook that
provides other locations where a person can see the
Sudbury impact fallout layer in Minnesota. It is:

Jirsa, M., and P. Weiblen, 2010, Field Trip 4 – Geology
of the Gunflint Iron Formation and the Sudbury
Impact Layer, Northeastern Minnesota. Precambrian
Research Center, University of Minnesota Duluth
Duluth, Minnesota.

http://www.d.umn.edu/prc/workshops/Guidebooks/BIF%20Guidebook4.pdf
http://www.d.umn.edu/prc/workshops/F10workshop.html

Other online papers about the sudbury impact
fallout layer are:

Cannon, W. F., K. J. Schulz, J. W. Horton Jr., and D. A.
Kring, 2010, The Sudbury impact layer in the
Paleoproterozoic iron ranges of northern Michigan,
USA. Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 122,
no. 1-2, pp. 50–75.

http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~raman/papers2/CannonetalSudburyGSAB09.pdf

and 2. Jirsa, M., and P. Fralick, nd, Minnesota’s Evidence
of an Ancient Meteorite Impact. Minnesota Geological
Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota.

http://www.mngs.umn.edu/meteoriteimpact.pdf or
http://talc.geo.umn.edu/mgs/meteoriteimpact.pdf
http://www.mngs.umn.edu/index.html

Pete wrote

"I haven't tried to answer this yet, waiting till I was back
home and could write a proper answer.

The site is just south of the new high bridge (just completed
this year I believe) over the Dead River on County Road 510,
about 2 miles north of US-41 between Marquette and
Negaunee, Michigan. There is a nice paved pulloff area on
the north side of the road, complete with picnic tables and
a sign about the building of the "Highway 510 Bridge", and
the outcrops of breccia which are interpreted to be fallout
from the 1.8-billion-year-old Sudbury asteroid impact are
in the woods right next to the parking area. This is known
and the Dead River Basin or McClure site of the impact breccia.

Sincerely, Pete Modreski

-----Original Message-----
From: steven makinen <1115stove at gmail.com>
To: rockhounds <rockhounds at lists.drizzle.com>
Sent: Wed, Aug 29, 2012 12:28 pm
Subject: [Rockhounds] Re: Rockhounds Digest, Vol 99, Issue 26

Re:Sudbury impact fallout layer
Could I get a location for this please? Sounds interesting."

Best wishes,

Paul H.

--

Thursday, 6 September 2012

Two separate extinctions brought end to dinosaur era ??

Two separate extinctions brought end to dinosaur era ??

Dinosaur die out might have been second of two
closely timed extinctions by Vince Stricherz,
University of Wisconsin, September 5, 2012
http://www.washington.edu/news/2012/09/05/dinosaur-die-out-might-have-been-second-of-two-closely-timed-extinctions/

Two separate extinctions brought end to
dinosaur era. NewScientist, August 3, 2012,
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22137-two-separate-extinctions-brought-end-to-dinosaur-era.html

The paper is

Tobin, T. S., P. D. Ward, E. J. Steig, E. B. Olivero,
I. A. Hilburn, R. N. Mitchell, M. R. Diamond, T. D.
Raub, and J. L. Kirschvink, 2012, Extinction
patterns, δ18 O trends, and magnetostratigraphy
from a southern high-latitude Cretaceous–
Paleogene section: Links with Deccan volcanism.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
vol. 350–352, pp. 180–188.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018212003847

Best wishes,

Paul H.

--

Researchers ponder what's next in volcanic Yellowstone

Researchers ponder what's next in volcanic Yellowstone

Researchers ponder what's next in volcanic Yellowstone
(Caldera isn't ready to erupt, but we might have little
warning when it is.) by John Timmer, Ars Technica,
September 3, 2012,
http://arstechnica.com/science/2012/09/researchers-ponder-whats-next-in-volcanic-yellowstone/

Girard, G., and J. Stix, 2012, Future volcanism at
Yellowstone caldera: Insights from geochemistry of
young volcanic units and monitoring of volcanic
unrest. GSA Today. vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 4-10.

Abstract at
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/22/9/abstract/i1052-5173-22-9-4.htm

PDF file at
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/22/9/pdf/i1052-5173-22-9-4.pdf

The paper states:

"Using geochronology and volumes of volcanic units,
they proposed probabilistic assessments of future
volcanic eruptions and suggested that a fourth
caldera-forming eruption was the least likely
scenario. Instead, they suggested that intracaldera
rhyolitic eruptions and small basaltic or rhyolitic
extra-caldera eruptions were more likely..."

Best wishes,

Paul H.
--

Tuesday, 4 September 2012

Clarifaction About Hurricane Isaac

Clarifaction About Hurricane Isaac

I my last post I wrote

"However, there are thousand of people, who were
badly hurt by Hurricane Isaac and can use any help
and prayers that can be given them.

American Red Cross – Louisiana
http://www.arcno.org
http://www.batonrouge.redcross.org "

It was only after I wrote it that realized the very poor
choice of words. I should have said badly affected"
instead of "badly hurt." Fortunately, the number of
people actually injured by this hurricane were small.
However, many people lost their houses, possessions,
livestock, and livelihoods and need help in getting
back on their feet.

I apologize for that error.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Pseudocraters Never Die (Phillips County, Montana)

Pseudocraters Never Die (Phillips County, Montana)

On the Internet, known pseudocraters ( craterwrongs )
never seem to die. They seem to get endlessly recycled
as seen in a rambling article, “The Younger Dryas Impact
Event and the Cycles of Cosmic Catastrophes,” reprinted
by RH on July 5, 2012 at:
http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/2012/07/younger-dryas-impact-event-and-cycles.html

This web page cites:

Geologists may have found 'new' meteor crater – Montana
by Annette Hayden, Havre Daily News, June 11, 2007.
http://sinkholeswww.sott.net/articles/show/134335-Geologists-may-have-found-new-meteor-crater-Montana

This circular feature is located at Latitude: 47.804896°:
Longitude: -108.631878° in Phillips County, Montana,
about 14.5 km southwest of Zortman, Montana.

as can be seen at:
http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=montana&ie=UTF8&ll=47.827793,-108.679848&spn=0.071453,0.150719&t=h&z=13&iwloc=addr&om=1
and http://www.sott.net/image/image/1705/NewMeteorCraterMinn.gif

Unfortunately, these circular features are not impact craters.
These features, which partially surround the Little Rocky
Mountains, are eroded surfaces of circular structural domes
created by the uplift of sedimentary strata overlying laccolithic
intrusions composed of syenite porphry.

These laccoliths are discussed in "Geology and Physiography
of Fort Belknap" at:
http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/nativelands/ftbelknap/geology.html

A geologic cross section of these circular features can
be found at:
http://serc.carleton.edu/images/research_education/nativelands/ftbelknap/crosssection.gif

According to the above web page, a laccolith is a “concordant
igneous intrusion that has domed the overlying rocks and has
a known or assumed flat floor and a postulated dikelike
feeder beneath its thickest point. It is roughly circular in plan,
less than five miles in diameter, and from a few feet to several
hundred feet in thickness.”

The geology of these features is illustrated by:

Porter, K. W., and E. M. Wilde, 2001, Geologic map of the
Zortman 30' x 60' quadrangle, eastern Montana, Montana
Bureau of Mines and Geology. Open-File Report 438,
16 p., 1 sheet(s), 1:100,000.
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/mbmgcat/public/ListCitation.asp?selectby=series&series_type=MBMG&series_number=438&series_sub=&

This report is available from:
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/pdf_100k/zortman-text.pdf

The 4.2 MB PDF file of the geologic map is available from:
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/pdf_100k/zortman.pdf

Publications about these circular geologic structures are:

Collier, A. J., and S. H. Cathcart, 1922, Possibility of finding
oil in laccolithic domes south of the Little Rocky Mountains,
Montana. Bulletin 736-F (pp. F171-F178) United States
Geological Survey, reston, Virginia.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/0736f/report.pdf
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_93198.htm

Knechtel, M. M., 1944, Oil and gas possibilities of the plains
adjacent to the Little Rocky Mountains, Montana. Oil and Gas
Investigations Map no. OM-4, scale 1:48000, U.S. Geological
Survey, Reston, Virginia.
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_32205.htm

Knechtel, M.M., 1959, Stratigraphy of the Little Rocky
Mountains and encircling foothills, Montana. Bulletin
no. 1072-N, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1072n/report.pdf
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_20726.htm

Web pages:

Laccolith - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laccolith
2. What's a laccolith? - http://formontana.net/2a.html

Syenite - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syenite

I survived Hurricane Isaac without any damage. My
power was off from about noon August 29th to about
10:30 PM, August 30th. So we were extremely lucky.
However, there are thousand of people, who were
badly hurt by Hurricane Isaac and can use any help
and prayers that can be given them.

American Red Cross – Louisiana
http://www.arcno.org
http://www.batonrouge.redcross.org

Best wishes,

Paul H.