Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Thursday, 28 February 2013

25 Foot Long "Chainsaw" Shark Reconstructed

25 Foot Long "Chainsaw" Shark Reconstructed

The terrifying 25 foot long prehistoric shark with a 'spiral'
of teeth that worked like a CHAINSAW (Helicoprion had a
conveyor belt of jagged teeth that spiralled out of its lower
jaw and ripped prey to shreds), Mail Online
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2284888/The-terrifying-25-foot-long-prehistoric-shark-spiral-teeth-worked-like-CHAINSAW.html

Prehistoric ghost shark Helicoprion's spiral-toothed jaw
explained, Scientific American, Feb 27, 2013
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/running-ponies/2013/02/27/prehistoric-ghost-shark-helicoprions-spiral-toothed-jaw-explained/

Helicoprion: Scientists solve mysteries of ancient 'shark'
with spiral-toothed jaw, PhysOrg, February 27, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-02-helicoprion-scientists-mysteries-ancient-shark.html

The paper is:

Tapanila, L., J. Pruitt, A. Pradel, C. D. Wilga, J. B. Ramsay,
R. Schlader, and D. A. Didier, 2013, Jaws for a spiral-tooth
whorl: CT images reveal novel adaptation and phylogeny
in fossil Helicoprion. Biology Letters, vol. 9, no. 2,
article 20130057. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/2/20130057.full.pdf+html

Yours,

Paul H.

Alleged Bosnian "Meteorite" Reported

Alleged Bosnian "Meteorite" Reported

After the Chelyabinsk Airburst, there has been a
noticeable increase in people inquiring about odd
rocks that they have found. It all has been interesting
and a good thing as I have had a good time looking
at rocks and teaching people geology.

In addition, as a result of the Chelyabinsk Airburst,
the below report appeared in the news:

Bosnia 'meteor' intrigues new generation in wake of
Russia strike (A mysterious rock at a quarry in central
Bosnia has seen has a spike in visitors in the wake
of the meteor explosion over Russia last week.)
The Telegraph, February 24, 2103.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/9890814/Bosnia-meteor-intrigues-new-generation-in-wake-of-Russia-strike.html

Is this Bosnia rock a meteorite?
by idoubtit, Doubtful News, February 24, 2013
http://doubtfulnews.com/2013/02/is-this-bosnia-rock-a-meteor/

Meteorite Bosnia: scienziati e scolaresche in pellegrinaggio
alla roccia caduta dal cielo by Davide Mazzocco, Feb. 25, 2013
http://www.ecoblog.it/post/53649/meteorite-bosnia-scienziati-e-scolaresche-in-pellegrinaggio-alla-roccia-caduta-dal-cielo

Judging from the available images, this objects looks
like an meter-scale concretion instead of a meteorite.
In addition, the statement, “It was so hot that it was
impossible to approach..,” is the standard folklore
that is associated all too many meteorwrongs. This
implausible claim raises a rather large red flag
about the validity of other comments about this
object. It still would fun and enlightening for someone
in the neighborhood to take a firsthand look at this
specimen.

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 27 February 2013

New Measures to Protect Fossils (China)

New Measures to Protect Fossils (China)

New measures to protect fossils
By WANG QIAN, chinadaily, February 27, 2013
http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-02/27/content_16261862.htm

Unfortunately, the article does not say anything
about meteorites.

A compilation of web pages about rock and fossil
collecting for various states and countries is
"Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Fossil Collecting –
Management, Laws And Regulations" at
http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php/topic/18378-fruitbats-pdf-library-fossil-collecting-management-laws-and-regulations/

Paul H.

Monday, 25 February 2013

Russian Fireball Inspires Journey into the World of Meteorites

Russian Fireball Inspires Journey into the World of Meteorites

Russian Fireball Inspires Journey into the World of Meteorites
by Bob King, Universe Today, February 24, 2013
http://www.universetoday.com/100192/russian-fireball-inspires-journey-into-the-world-of-meteorites/

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 23 February 2013

Township and Range - Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

Township and Range - Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

In “[Rockhounds] Township and Range - Public Land
Survey System (PLSS)” at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-February/000623.html ,
Lanny R wrote;

“The two systems are two different systems, designed
for two different purposes. The PLSS was designed to
describe a piece of land; the GPS system and its
coordinate system was designed to locate a point.
Describing a piece of land with a coordinate system
is cumbersome.”

Also GPS can become complicated even when a person
only uses latitude and longitude. This is because there has
been changes in the North American Datum. For example,
presumably GPS systems currently use either the North
American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) or its close cousin
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) to calculate latitude
and longitude. This might create a problem because a
number of paper USGS Maps use the North American
Datum of 1927 (NAD27). In the western United States, the
difference in location between same latitude and longitude
coordinates in NAD83 and NAD27 can be from 40 to 100 m
on the ground as illustrated in “File:Datum Shift Between
NAD27 and NAD83” at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Datum_Shift_Between_NAD27_and_NAD83.png

Also, see “North American Datum” at;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_Datum

NAD27: What Is It and Why You Should Care by Dane E. Ericksen,
P.E., Hammett & Edison, Inc., Consulting Engineers. 1994 SBE
National Convention and World Media Expo
http://h-e.com/sites/h-e.com/files/tech_docs/de_sbe94.pdf

Fortunately, DGRs (digital versions) of topographic maps
are normally, but not always, georeferenced to NAD83 and
latitude and longitude from a GPS unit should be the same
spot on the map. Still to be precise, a person still needs to
determine whether the GPS unit they are using, the maps
and aerial imagery that they are using; and the coordinates
that they have been given are based on either NAD83,
NAD27, or WGS84. Also, when someone publishes points
using latitude and longitude, they need to specify the datum
(NAD83, NAD27, or WGS84) used by the GPS unit, maps etc.
used to determine the coordinates. Finally, to further confuse
people, a lot of states have their mapping and coordinates in
latitude and longitude in local datums known as State Plane
Coordinate Systems, which are typically based upon NAD27.
Some states have different State Plane Coordinate Systems
for different parts of a states. For example Texas has four
separate state plane coordinate systems and Louisiana has
two of them.

Having worked with archaeologists, I prefer the UTM
coordinate system over latitude and longitude. For
more details, go see “Universal Transverse Mercator
coordinate system” at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTM_coordinate_system

and “Transverse Mercator projection” at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transverse_Mercator_projection

Other online information.

Projections, Coordinate Systems and Datums explained
http://geospatial.osu.edu/conference/proceedings/workshops/conner.pdf

Datums and Coordinate Systems
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/gps/aboutgps/documents/04_datum.ppt

Projection, Datum, and Map Scale - New Mexico Tech
http://www.nmt.edu/~gjones/Lecture4-5.ppt

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 22 February 2013

Copyright Dispute Blocks Dashcam Meteor Videos in Germany

Copyright Dispute Blocks Dashcam Meteor Videos in Germany

Germans can’t see meteorite YouTube videos due
to copyright dispute German rights group wants
$0.005 per stream and Google says nein.
by Cyrus Farivar, Ars technica, February 20, 2013
http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2013/02/germans-cant-see-meteorite-youtube-videos-due-to-copyright-dispute/

Dashcam meteor videos blocked in Germany
because of copyrighted background music
by Adi Robertson, the Verge, February 21, 2013
http://www.theverge.com/2013/2/21/4013172/dashcam-meteor-videos-blocked-in-germany-because-of-copyrighted

Yours,

Paul H.

Township and Range - Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

Township and Range - Public Land Survey System (PLSS)

In “[Rockhounds] Schröckinglerite” at:
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-February/000610.html ,
J Bryan Kramer wrote

“BTW I found a site that converts Township/Range/
Section to a Lat/Long for the center of the section.
It works for Western States (US) mostly:

http://wefald.com/testtrs2ll.html

A lot of the location information I have is in the worthless
T_R_S format.”

There is a Google Earth application that can be used
either to search for a specific Township and Range in
Google Earth or view the Public Land Survey System
(PLSS) in Google Earth. It can be downloaded from
“PLSS in Google Earth (PLSGE)” at
http://www.metzgerwillard.us/plss/plss.html

Useful information and GIS layers for the PLSS grid
can be found in the web page “Download Public Land
Survey System (PLSS) Data” at:
http://www.geocommunicator.gov/GeoComm/lsis_home/home/
http://www.geocommunicator.gov/ARCGIS/REST/services/PLSS/MapServer
http://www.geocommunicator.gov/GeoComm/lsis_home/townshipdecoder/index.htm
and http://www.geocommunicator.gov/GeoComm/

A commercial web page is “Township and Range –
Public Land Survey System on Google Earth.” at
http://www.earthpoint.us/Townships.aspx

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 20 February 2013

Evidence for a "Wet" Early Moon

Evidence for a "Wet" Early Moon

Moon may have always held water, from its formation
by Liat Clark, Wired News, February 10, 2013
http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-02/18/water-on-the-moon

Apollo Moon Rocks Challenge Lunar Water Theory
by Elizabeth Howell, Space.com, February 19, 2013
http://www.space.com/19848-apollo-moon-rocks-water.html

Hui, H., A. H. Peslier, Y. Zhang, and C. R. Neal, 2013,
Water in lunar anorthosites and evidence for a wet
early Moon. Nature Geoscience. Published online
17 February 2013
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo1735.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Infrasound Generated by Chelyabinsk Airburst

Infrasound Generated by Chelyabinsk Airburst

Russia’s Meteorite Explosion Was “Heard” Half-Way
Around the World by Eric Limer, Gizmodo, February 17, 2013
http://gizmodo.com/5984861/russias-meteor-explosion-was-heard-half+way-around-the-world

Russian Meteor Blast's 'Infrasound' Detected Over Vast
Distances by Becky Oskin, Huffington Post, Feb. 17, 2013
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/17/russian-meteor-blast-infrasound-heard-world_n_2706524.html

In Russia, Ruins and Property Spared by Meteor, Side
by Side by A. E. Kramer, New York Times, Feb. 17, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/18/world/europe/in-russia-property-ruined-and-spared-by-meteor-share-space.html

"…reports came in to local news media over the
weekend of stranger phenomena: behind unshattered
apartment windows, glass jugs were said to explode
into shards, dishes to crack, electronics to die.
Balconies rattled. One man said a bottle broke right
in his hand."

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 19 February 2013

Russians Wade Into the Snow to Seek Treasure

Russians Wade Into the Snow to Seek Treasure
From the Sky by Andrew E. Kramer, New York
Times, February 18, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/world/europe/russian-scientists-say-they-found-meteorite-fragments.html?google_editors_picks=true&_r=0&pagewanted=all

Scientists Seek More Information On Meteorite,
Morning Edition, February 18, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/02/18/172298071/scientists-seek-more-information-on-meteorite

"….for example, we're in a village where there were
reports yesterday that people had found small black
pebbles in the snow.

And these were holes coated in ice, like an upside
down icicle. And if you dig down into these holes
you find a small black pebble. And they've found
thousands of these in this village. Women would
take them out in their kitchens and show you a
handful. And now it seems that these are, in fact,
meteor shards."

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 18 February 2013

"Gold Rush" begins for Fragments of Russian Meteorite 2

"Gold Rush" begins for Fragments of Russian Meteorite 2

In [meteorite-list] "Gold Rush" begins for Fragments of Russian Meteorite at:
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg110943.html
I wrote,

“Chelyabinsk decided to keep the money in meteorites
Konstantin Panyushkin, February 17, 2013,
http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=1034744&cid=7
http://cdn1.vesti.ru/p/o_740865.jpg

A rough translation done of the video at
http://www.vesti.ru/only_video.html?vid=486926
was done for me.

From the notes that I took while she translated for me,
the first part of the video is about schools and hospitals
getting their windows repaired and opening tomorrow.
It was followed by a segment about first responders
being taught to cut glass and repair windows.

The next segment is about inhabitants in a village
finding what they believe to me meteorites. The general
gist of the segment is that they believe the stones
came from space. They first noticed distinct holes in the
snow around their village. When they dug up the holes,
they found “pieces of metal” of various shapes and stones
which they had not seen before within the area of the
village. The kids said that they had found 6 or 7 stones
the size of fingernail and one large stone. The segment
states that they have decided to keep the “money in
their stones” and wait to sell their stones when they
can get the best money for them. It was stated that
they will hide their stones from strangers until real buyers
come as they heard on the internet that the stones are
worth real money. Also, they will not think of showing
their stones to scientists.

One of the kids said that his grandfather told him
not to keep the stones at home and not to touch them
with his bare hands. My translator told me that the
grandfather is likely thinking about the Kyshtym
explosion that occurred on Sept. 29, 1957. In this
explosion, a waste tank at the Mayak nuclear weapons
plant, Chelyabinsk region, exploded and contaminated
an area of 15,000 to 20,000 square kilometers with
radioactivity. As a result, the older Russians in the
region are suspicious of massive explosions of any
kind.

Kyshtym disaster
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyshtym_disaster
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayak#Kyshtym_disaster
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ostural-Spur.png

Yours,

Paul H.

Fireball reported across California sky

Fireball reported across California sky

Fireball reported across California sky, Mike Denison, USA TODAY
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/02/16/fireball-calif-sky/1924483/

Watch: Fireball Streaks Across Bay Area Sky by Lori Preuitt
NBC Bay Area, February 16, 2013
http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Fireball-Streaks-Across-Bay-Area-Sky-191503601.html

Fireball Streaks Across California Sky, NBC Southern California
http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/Watch-Fireball-Streaks-Across-Bay-Area-Sky-191508391.html

On heels of Russia meteor explosion, Calif. residents report
streak of light, Washington Post, February 16, 2013
http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/on-heels-of-russia-meteor-explosion-calif-residents-report-streak-of-light-over-calif-sky/2013/02/16/cd8b0c7e-7851-11e2-b102-948929030e64_story.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Gold Rush begins for Fragments of Russian Meteorite

"Gold Rush" begins for Fragments of Russian Meteorite

The gold rush begins for fragments of Russian meteor
worth more than £10,000 each as astronomers warn
UK had a lucky escape. Mail Online, February 17, 2013,
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2280019/The-gold-rush-begins-fragments-Russian-meteor-worth-10-000-astronomers-warn-UK-lucky-escape.html

Bounty sets off hunt for meteorite pieces by Mark
Franchetti,The Sunday Times (UK) February 18, 2013
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/bounty-sets-off-hunt-for-meteorite-pieces/story-fnb64oi6-1226579823065

Collectors Flock to Central Russia to Hunt Meteor
Gold By Timur Moon, February 17, 2013
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/436137/20130217/meteor-urals-chelyabinsk-chebarkul.htm

Russia halts search for meteorite, AFP, Sydney
Morning Herald, Febrauary 18, 2013,
http://www.smh.com.au/technology/sci-tech/russia-halts-search-for-meteorite-20130217-2ele5.html

Meteorites: Hunting missiles from outer space
Sunday Morning, CBS News, February 17, 2013
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-3445_162-57569765/meteorites-hunting-missiles-from-outer-space/

Chelyabinsk decided to keep the money in meteorites
Konstantin Panyushkin, February 17, 2013,
http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=1034744&cid=7
http://cdn1.vesti.ru/p/o_740865.jpg

“But there is one place where there was neither MES
nor military. In general, anyone, and it was there,
according to local residents, and all fell. Residents of
a village in the south of Chelyabinsk - the name is not
disclosed specifically - show black stones and believe
that he is the fragments of a meteorite.

"The kids found fresh snow hole and started to get
out of the metal pieces of different shapes," - says
Sergey Turnovsky."

Yours,
Paul H.

2013 THE Year of Meteors, Asteroids, Comets, and MORE!!

Sunday, 17 February 2013

Scientist Gets Research Money From Crowd Funding

Scientist Gets Research Money From Crowd Funding

Scientist Gets Research Donations From Crowd Funding
by Joe Palca, Morning Edition, NPR, February 14, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/02/14/171975368/scientist-gets-research-donations-from-crowdfunding

Scientists Look To The Internet To Raise Research Funds
by Joe Palca, Morning Edition, NPR, February 15, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/02/15/172078619/scientists-look-to-the-internet-to-raise-research-funds

Yours,

Paul H.

Recent Articles About Chelyabinsk Airburst

Recent Articles About Chelyabinsk Airburst

After meteor strike, Russian experts reflect by
Sergei L. Loiko Los Angeles Times, February 16, 2013
http://www.latimes.com/news/world/worldnow/la-wn-fg-chelyabinsk-meteor-lessons-20130216,0,4643856.story

Freezing Russians begin repairing windows
shattered by fiery meteor blast CNN News,
http://edition.cnn.com/2013/02/16/world/europe/russia-meteor-shower/

Russian meteor hit with force of 30 Hiroshima
bombs, The Telegraph, February 16, 2013,
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/space/9874662/Russian-meteor-hit-with-force-of-30-Hiroshima-bombs.html

Details on the meteor in Russia’s Ural Mountain
region, by Brian Vastag, Washington Post, Feb. 15, 2013
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/02/15/live-updates-meteor-in-russias-ural-mountain-area/

Meteorites, One More Danger For Russian Drivers
by Kurt Ernst, Motor Authority, February 15, 2013
http://www.motorauthority.com/news/1082354_meteorites-one-more-danger-for-russian-drivers-video

Articles about meteorites in general

Meteorites in the New Yorker by Joshua
Rothman, The New Yorker, February 15, 2013.
http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/backissues/2013/02/meteors-in-the-new-yorker.html

Thunderstone: What People Thought About
Meteorites Before Modern Astronomy, by
Megan Garber, The Atlantic, February 15, 2013
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/02/thunderstone-what-people-thought-about-meteorites-before-modern-astronomy/273220/

Yours,

Paul H.

Cuban Bolide 15FEB2013

Cuban Bolide 15FEB2013

These articles discusses the reported Cuban bolide.

Cuba Town Also Rocked by Celestial Body
International, Havana Times-Feb 15, 2013
http://www.havanatimes.org/?p=87801

Cuba, too, reports powerful meteorite explosion
The Huffington Post,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20130216/cb-cuba-meteorite/

Cubans, Californians report fireball events less
than a day after Russian meteorite blast
THE ASSOCIATED PRESS February 16, 2013 10:20 AM
http://www.theprovince.com/technology/space/Cubans+Californians+report+fireball+events+less+than/7976073/story.html

Russian meteorite followed by claimed sightings
in Cuba and California, The Guardian
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/feb/16/russian-meteorite-sightings-cuba-california

Yours,

Paul

Saturday, 16 February 2013

Third Largest Impact Structure Reportedly Found in South Australia

Third Largest Impact Structure Reportedly Found in South Australia

World's third largest asteroid impact zone found in
South Australia by Sunanda Creagh February 15, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-02-world-largest-asteroid-impact-zone.html

“An asteroid measuring up to 20km across hit South
Australia up to 360 million years ago and left behind
the one of the largest asteroid impact zones on Earth,
according to new research published today.”

Asteroid impact zone found by Sunanda Creagh,
Science Alert, February 15, 2013
http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20131502-24059-2.html+

The paper is:

Glikson, Y. A., I. T. Uysal, J. D. F, Gerald, and E. Saygin,
2013, Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures,
Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia:
Tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin?
Tectonophysics. Available online 12 January 2013
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040195113000188

In reference to the Chelyabinsk Airburst, there is:

Sonic boom caused by meteorite hurtling above Russian
town at 33,000mph smashes buildings and injures 1,000
people before the space rock crashes into frozen lake,
Mail Online, February 15, 2013,
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2279020/Russian-meteorite-Moment-meteorite-exploded-doctors-treat-500-people-injured.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Why so Many Dashboard Web Cams of Chelyabinsk Airburst

Why so Many Dashboard Web Cams of Chelyabinsk Airburst

Why so Many Dashboard Web Cams of Bolide

If the list members wonder why there are so
such meteor footage from cameras mounted
on the dashboards of cars, It is explained in:

1. Dash-cams: Russia’s Last Hope For Civility
And Survival On The Road By Marina Galperina,
June 13, 2012, http://www.animalnewyork.com/2012/russian-dashcam/

2. Footage of Russian meteor highlights country’s
dashboard camera obsession (Why do Russians
keep dash-cams in their cars? Because accidents
and con-artists are common, and Russia's
highway cops are corrupt, according to reports.
New York Dailey News, February 15, 2013
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/russian-meteor-highlights-russian-dash-cam-culture-article-1.1265255

3. Russian meteor footage highlights dash cam
culture. CBC News, February 15, 2013
http://www.cbc.ca/news/yourcommunity/2013/02/russian-meteor-footage-highlights-dash-cam-culture.html

Those people going Russia might want to look at
Russian Road Rage and Car Crashes 2012 at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-l4w-DIiXk

Correction

The URL to "Asteroid impact zone found by Sunanda Creagh,
Science Alert, February 15, 2013" contains a "+" that it should not.

The URL should be

http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20131502-24059-2.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 14 February 2013

Asteroid Hits Earth! How the Doomsday Scenario Would Play Out

Asteroid Hits Earth! How the Doomsday Scenario Would Play Out

Asteroid Hits Earth! How the Doomsday Scenario Would
Play Out by Jeffrey Kluger, Time, February 14, 2013
http://science.time.com/2013/02/14/asteroid-hits-earth-how-the-doomsday-scenario-would-play-out/

The Committee to Save the Planet: Who Watches the
Asteroids? by Nina Burleigh, Time, February 12, 2013
http://world.time.com/2013/02/12/the-committee-to-save-the-planet-who-watches-the-asteroids/

Duck! Close Shave with an Asteroid Coming by Jeffrey
Kluger, Time, February 05, 2013
http://science.time.com/2013/02/05/duck-close-shave-with-an-asteroid-coming/

An unrelated article for cat lovers:

How a Kitty Walked 200 Miles Home: The Science of
Your Cat’s Inner Compass by Veronique Greenwood
Time, February 11, 2013
http://science.time.com/2013/02/11/the-mystery-of-the-geolocating-cat/?iid=sci-article-mostpop1

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 13 February 2013

Windows Into Mississippi’s Geological Past - Online PDF File

Windows Into Mississippi’s Geological Past - Online PDF File

Dockery, D. T. III, and K. Lightsey, 1997, Windows Into
Mississippi’s Geological Past. Circular no. 6, Mississippi
Office of Geology, Jackson, Mississippi. 68 pp.

PDF file at
http://www.deq.state.ms.us/Mdeq.nsf/pdf/Main_1GeologyBook/$File/1GeologyBook.pdf

or
http://www.deq.state.ms.us/Mdeq.nsf/pdf/Main_1GeologyBook/$File/1GeologyBook.pdf?OpenElement

Link to PDF file at
http://www.deq.state.ms.us/Mdeq.nsf/page/Geology_Circular-WindowsIntoMississippi’sGeologicalPast?OpenDocument

Yours,

Paul H.

Massachusetts Mineral and Fossil Localities

Massachusetts Mineral and Fossil Localities

Gleba, Peter P., 2008, Massachusetts Mineral and Fossil
Localities. Krueger Enterprises, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
117 pp and maps.

PDF File at
http://www.geo.umass.edu/stategeologist/Gleba_Mass_Fossil-Min_Localities.pdf

and its link is in "Fossils and Minerals in Massachusetts" at
http://www.geo.umass.edu/stategeologist/frame_massgeo.htm?massgeo_foss-min.htm

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 12 February 2013

New Research Strengthens Asteroid Impact as Cause of Dinosaur Extinctions

New Research Strengthens Asteroid Impact as Cause of Dinosaur Extinctions

Fresh Clues In Dinosaur Whodunit Point To Asteroid
by Adam Cole, All Things Consdiered, February 7, 2013
http://www.npr.org/2013/02/07/171170142/fresh-clues-in-dinosaur-whodunit-point-to-asteroid

Asteroid Impact That Killed the Dinosaurs: New
Evidence. LiveScience.com, February 6, 2012
http://www.livescience.com/26933-chicxulub-cosmic-impact-dinosaurs.html

New Evidence Strengthens Argument That Dinosaurs
Died As Result of Asteroid Impact (New study says
cosmic impact, dinosaur extinction were 'synchronous
events') by Jason Koebler, US News,
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/02/07/new-evidence-strengthens-argument-that-dinosaurs-died-as-result-of-asteroid-impact

After the Dinosaurs Died This Furball Started the Next
Big Thing, Wired news, February 8, 2013
http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/02/mammals-and-dinosaurs/

The papers are,

Palike, H. 2013, Impact and Extinction. Science.
vol. 339 no. 6120 pp. 655-656
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/655.summary

Renne, P. R., a. L. Deino, F. J. Hilgen, K. F. Kuiper,
D. F. Mark, W. S. Mitchell III, L. E. Morgan, R. Mundil,
and J. Smit, 2013, Time Scales of Critical Events
Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary. Science.
vol. 339, no. 6120, pp,. 684-687.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/684.abstract

O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, and many others, 2013,
The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post–K-Pg Radiation
of Placentals. Science. vol. 339, no. 6120, pp. 662-667
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/662.abstract

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Geological Survey of Canada fails to return piece of meteorite he discovered

Geological Survey of Canada fails to return piece of meteorite he discovered

In “Geological Survey of Canada fails to return piece of meteorite he discovered” at
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg110706.html
MikeG wrote:

“I am a bit confused here. I didn't see the name of the meteorite
mentioned in the article, only that it was found in the Yukon in
1986. Is this an unclassified fall or find?”

It is an unclassified find. According to the news articles, the
Canadian Geological Survey geologists have determined that
it is a meteorite.

MikeG stated.

“Also, a $1000 payout for a 243g meteorite works out to a mere
$4/g - which is pretty good for a highly-weathered ordinary
chondrite find. But a fresher, recent fall should fetch more than that.”

According to the below article, that was the lower end of price
range that Attorney General of Canada Office appraised it as
noted in:

Decade-long disagreement over meteorite back in court
(A more than 10-year battle Daniel Sabo has had with the
Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) continued Monday in
the Yukon Court of Appeal.) by Stephanie Waddell, Whitehorse
Daily Star, November 6, 2012
http://www.whitehorsestar.com/archive/story/decade-long-disagreement-over-meteorite-back-in-court/

In this article, Mrs. Waddell wrote,

“While Sabo has estimated the rock’s value at $12.1 million,
Alexander Benitah, who’s representing the Attorney General
of Canada in the case, pointed to estimates that had it come
in between $1,000 and $2,500 based on the evidence of the
GSC.

He argued Sabo’s valuation is based solely on the highest-priced
meteorite Sabo found on the Internet, while the $1,000 to $2,500
is based on the evidence of the GSC.”

Finally, MikeG stated.

“Lastly, the guy sounds like some sort of conspiracy nut who
claimed GSC switched out his meteorite and gave him an
imposter in return. Then he demanded $12 million in damages,
which was denied.”

The below articles are rather revealing of the entire controversy
and Daniel Sabo’s state of mind.

1. Meteorite conspiracy could be on the rocks by Tristin Hopper,
Yukon news, September 12, 2008 http://yukon-news.com/news/9865/

2. A tale of two meteorites by Tristin Hopper Yukon News,
July 18, 2008, http://www.yukon-news.com/sports/9552/

For example, Mr. Sabo believes not only did the Canadian
Geological Survey replaced his meteorite with a carefully sculpted
replica made from another meteorite, but they also gave his
original meteorite to NASA’s Johnson Space Laboratory. He
also claims that the “fusion crust” on the specimen was faked
using “aluminum — embedded with iron particles to simulate
the magnetic properties of magnetite.”

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 11 February 2013

"Petrified algae"

"Petrified algae"

In “right through the middle! and pet wood” at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-February/000459.html
Tim Fisher wrote:

“I would like to see something concrete about the "petrified
algae". That has long been the explanation for the thick rind
around most of the limbs but I have never seen verification
of this.”

In addition, in “right through the middle! and pet wood” at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-February/000462.html
Pete stated:

“I ditto, would be curious for some verified paleontological
information about the "petrified algae" too.”

I agree with Thomas Yancey’s objections to the term "petrified
algae" in his post "petrified algae" at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-February/000464.html

I did a brief survey of a number of papers about the Green
River Formation. What is called "petrified algae" in previous
posts is often found in some members of it. In a few cases, it is
abundant enough in specific layers that they are recognizable
marker (key) beds within the Green River Formation. The
general terminology used to described the "petrified algae"
varies between “algal encrusted logs,” “algally encrusted logs,”
“tufa-encrusted logs,” and less commonly either “algal encrusted
tufa logs” or “algal-tufa-coated logs.” These logs are often
regarded to have formed within either shallow lake water or
mudflats associated with (forested) shorelines (Buchheim et al.
2011, Bradley 1926, McGrew 1980, McGrew and Casilliano
1975, Oriel and Tracey 1970, National Park service 1988,
Surdam 1979). Koernegay and Surdam (1980) simply state
that “The algal encrusted logs frequently represent a rapid
transgression into a wooded area.” However, the majority
of papers that mention encrusted logs typically lack any
discussion of specifically how the material encrusting them
formed. I suspect that some of the more laterally extensive
accumulations of carbonate encrusted logs, such as the
Blue Forest, might represent what sequence stratigraphers
call “transgressive surfaces.”

Although they do not provide much real detail, two papers,
Loewen et al (1990) and National Park Service (2012).
specifically describe the calcareous material encrusting logs
as consisting either of tufa, “stromatolite material,” or a
mixture of the two. Stromatolite material is defined as
“sediment trapped by cyanophytes (blue-green algae)” and
tufa as an inorganically precipitated crust of carbonate. They
regard the carbonate material encrusting some logs as having
formed as either an inorganic precipitate, as the result of
stromatolite formation for other logs, and for some logs as a
mixture of both organic and inorganic processes. They infer
that the formation of the carbonate crusts on logs required
the logs being submerged in place for a period of time.
Regardless of whether they are tufa, stromatolites, or mixture
of the two, I would not use the term “petrified” because these
crusts are quite likely primary carbonates that have not
been altered by later replacement.

Where these carbonate crusts lack laminations, they might
be properly considered to be thrombolities instead of
stromatolites. Where their origin is uncertain, a more
nongeneric terms, such as “micrite crust,” might be used.

Unfortunately I was not able to find any detailed studies
concerning the formation of the carbonate crusts found
encrusting logs within the Green River Formation. However,
a small detailed study was been made of quite similar
carbonate encrustations of silicified tree trunks in the basal
Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic) of southern England.
This study concluded that the encrusting carbonates were
created by microbial carbonate formation involving carbonate
grain trapping along with both the inorganic and organic
precipitation of carbonate. It regarded them as having the
typical features of freshwater tufa stromatolite deposits
(Clites 2005).

Tim Fisher also wrote:

“There are also "petrified termite mounds" just to the SW of
the Blue Forest area that I sincerely doubt are any remnant
of insect nests. I don't have any other explanation, other
than they look like the WY "fossil stromatolites" more than
anything else. Although I haven't seen anything definitive
about those either.”

Unfortunately, without some pictures, it is impossible to
definitively determine what these "petrified termite mounds"
might be. In case of the Green River Formation there are two
distinct possibilities as what they might be. First, as is
suggested above they might be stromatolites mistaken for
"petrified termite mounds." Finally, they might be caddisfly
mounds (bioherms), which occur within the Green River
Formation and form well defined beds and domal structures.
The figures in Leggitt et al. (2007) show fossil Caddisfly-
dominated microbial-carbonate mounds that would be
easy for people to misidentify as "petrified termite mounds."
Leggitt and Cushman (2001) also show caddisfly mounds
(bioherms) are quite similar in size and shape to termite
mounds. Their internal structure would readily be mistaken
for fossil termite mounds by the average lay person.

Fossil termite mounds and nest have been reported from
the Morrsion and Chinle formations of the American
Southwest (Hasiotis and Dubiel 1995, Hasiotis 2004); the
Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa and
Lesotho (Bordy et al. 2009); and the Miocene of Chad
(Duringer et al. 2007). Thus, it is entirely possible that
fossil termite mounds might be found in the Green River
Formation.

Someone should compare the alleged "petrified termite
mounds" to what is published in Leggitt and Cushman
(2001), Leggitt et al. (2007), Hasiotis and Dubiel (1995),
Hasiotis (2004), Bordy et al. (2009), Duringer et al. (2007).
Also, the specific sedimentary facies, in which they are found,
will serve to clarify what they are as the reported fossil
termite mounds are all associated with strata and often
fossil soils that have been interpreted to be subaerial,
floodplain, natural levee, and eolian, in origin.

References Cited

Bordy, E. M., A. Bumby, O. Catuneanu, and P. G. Eriksson,
2009, Possible trace fossils of putative termite origin in the
Lower Jurassic (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa and
Lesotho. South African Journal of Science. vol. 105,
pp. 356–362.

Buchheim, H. P., R. A. Cushman, Jr., and R. E. Biaggi, 2011,
Stratigraphic revision of the Green River Formation in Fossil
Basin, Wyoming: Overfilled to underfilled lake evolution.
Rocky Mountain Geology. vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 165-181,

Bradley, W. H., 1926, Shore phases of the Green River
Formation in northern Sweetwatt. County, Wyoming.
Professional Paper no. 140-D. U.S. Geological Survey,
Reston, Virginia. 11 pp.

Clives, E. C., 2005, “Burr” stromatolites in the basal Purbeck
Formation (Upper Jurassic of southern England). unpublished
Junior Independent Study paper, The College of Wooster,
Wooster, Ohio. 29 pp.
http://ismanual.voices.wooster.edu/files/2012/12/E_Clites1.pdf

(Also see “The fossil forest: part 1: The geology of the ledge.”
http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/Fossil-Forest.htm and
http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/Fossil-Forest-Purbeck-Trees.htm )

Duringer, P., M. Schuster, J. F. Genise, H. T. Mackaye, P.
Vignaud, and M. Brunet, 2007, New termite trace fossils:
galleries, nests and fungus combs from the Chad basin of
Africa (upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene). Palaeogeography,
Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. vol. 251, no. 3-4,
pp. 323–353.

Hasiotis S. T., 2004, Reconnaissance of Upper Jurassic
Morrison Formation ichnofossils, Rocky Mountain region, USA:
Environmental, stratigraphic, and climatic significance of
terrestrial and freshwater ichnocoenoses. Sedimentary Geology.
vol. 167, no, 3-4, pp. 277–368.

Hasiotis, S. T., and R. F. Dubiel, 1995, Termite (Insecta: Isoptera)
nest ichnofossils from the Triassic Chinle Formation, Petrified
Forest National Park, Arizona. Ichnos. vol. 4, pp. 130–191.

Kornegay, G. L. and R. Surdam, 1980, The Laney Member of
the Green River Formation, Sand Wash Basin, Colorado, and
Its Relationship to Wyoming. in A. Harrison and others, eds.,
pp. 191-204, Stratigraphy of Wyoming : guidebook : 31st annual
field conference, Jackson Hole, Wyoming - Teton Village,
September 6-10, 1980, Wyoming Geological Association,
Casper, Wyoming.

Leggitt, V. M., and R. A. Cushman, 2001,Complex caddisfly-
dominated bioherms from the Eocene Green River
Formation. Sedimentary Geology. vol. 145, no. 3-4,
pp. 377-396.

Leggitt, V. M., R. E Biaggi, H P. Buchheim, 2007,
Palaeoenvironments associated with caddisfly-dominated
microbial-carbonate mounds from the Tipton Shale Member
of the Green River Formation: Eocene Lake Gosiute.
Sedimentology. vol. 54, no. 3, pp.661–699.

Loewen, M. A., V. L. Leggit and H. P. Buchheim, 1990, Caddisfly
(Trichoptera) larval cases from Eocene Fossil Lake. National
Park Service Paleontological Research. no. 4, pp. 72-22.
(Geologic Resources Division Technical Report no.
NPS/NRGRD/GRDTR-99/03)

McGrew, P. O., 1980, An Eocene flamingo nesting area,
Sweetwater County, Wyoming. National Geographic Society
Research Reports. vol. 12, pp. 473–478.

McGrew, P. O., and M. Casilliano, 1975, The geological history
of Fossil Butte National Monument and Fossil Basin. Occasional
Paper no. 3, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

National Park service, 2012, Fossil Butte National Monument:
Geologic Resources Inventory Report. Natural Resource
Report NPS/NRSS/GRD/NRR—2012/587, U.S. Department of the
Interior, Washington, D.C. 53 pp.

Oriel, S. S., and J. I. Tracey, Jr., 1970, Uppermost Cretaceous
and Tertiary stratigraphy of Fossil Basin, southwestern
Wyoming. Professional Paper no. 635. U.S. Geological Survey,
Reston, Virginia. 53 pp.

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 8 February 2013

Louisiana & Earth Science

Louisiana & Earth Science

In “Louisiana & earth science”at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-January/000392.html
Johan Mineral wrote:

"Planning vacation for Louisiana New Orleans –
Baton Rouge area. What are your suggestions for
earth science related activities: museums, digs, ..."

The best summary of the type of information that exists
for which you are looking is found in "Rockhounding
Louisiana" at
http://www.gatorgirlrocks.com/state-by-state/louisiana.html

Of the books that she lists, the one that a person visiting
Louisiana definitely should get is Darwin Spearing's
“Roadside Geology of Louisiana,” which was published
by Mountain Press.
http://geology.com/store/roadside-geology-louisiana.shtml

An article about fossil hunting in Louisiana is "Fossil
Hunting in Louisiana Gravels" at:

http://appl027.lsu.edu/MNSEducation/Saturday/Hunting%20for%20Fossils%203.pdf

PDF files of Louisiana geological maps can be found at:
http://www.lgs.lsu.edu/deploy/content/PUBLI/contentpage17.php

General PDF files about Louisiana geology can be found at:
http://www.lgs.lsu.edu/deploy/content/PUBLI/contentpage14.php

A nice fieldtrip guidebook about Katrina and New
Orleans is “Hurricane Katrina - What Happened?
A Field Trip The Geology of the Katrina Disaster in
New Orleans” by Stephen A. Nelson, Dept. Earth &
Environmental Sciences, Tulane University at
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Katrina/

PDF file at:
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Katrina/Hurricane%20Katrina%20Field%20Trip.pdf

The local museums are

1. International Petroleum Museum & Exposition
Morgan City, Louisiana

http://www.rigmuseum.com/

2. Louisiana Museum of Natural History
Louisiana State University – Baton Rouge, Louisiana

http://appl003.lsu.edu/natsci/lmnh.nsf/index

3. Lafayette Science Museum, Lafayette, Louisiana

http://www.gatorgirlrocks.com/state-by-state/louisiana.html

The best source of information for your inquiries are
local gem and mineral societies. Contact information
for them can be found in "Louisiana Gem and Mineral Clubs" at

http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/clubs/louisiana.shtml

Baton Rouge Gem & Mineral Society
40443 Sycamore Ave
Gonzales, Louisiana 70737
Meeting Place: Marriott Hotel - Baton Rouge
Meeting Time: 4th Tuesday, 7:00PM
Primary Contact: Ray Duplechain
rayduplechain[at]hotmail.com
Phone: [225] 978-0031

Gem and Mineral Society of Louisiana
P.O. Box 51527
New Orleans, Louisiana 70151
Meeting Place: University of New Orleans,
Geological Bldg., Room 1000, Lakeshore Drive, NOLA
Meeting Time: 7:30 pm - Second Monday of each Month, except July
Primary Contact: Levette Carlos
E-Mail: ljcarlos[at]gmail.com
Phone: [985] 643-6610
Secondary Contact: Mary Lou Shannon-Fuerst
E-Mail: jerseydevil1974[at]yahoo.com
Phone: [504] 285-2950

Some Informative Web Pages

Louisiana Gravel Fossils and Agates
http://la-gravel-fossils.blogspot.com/

Also, a person can search the "Fossil Forum" for posts
about Louisiana fossils at http://www.thefossilforum.com/ .

Finally, there is the "Louisiana Fossil Page" at:
http://web.archive.org/web/20110910005442/http://members.cox.net/pyrophyllite/lafossil1.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20110711151310/http://members.cox.net/pyrophyllite/lafossil1.html

If you have any specific questions, you can contact
the geologists at the Louisiana Geological Survey at
http://www.lgs.lsu.edu/deploy/content/GINFO/contentpage5.php

Best wishes,

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 6 February 2013

Double Asteroid May Have Wiped out Dinosaurs

Double Asteroid May Have Wiped out Dinosaurs

Double asteroid trouble may have wiped out dinosaurs
(The asteroid theory of dinosaur extinction gets a new
twist as scientists look into what may have been a
twin asteroid impact) by Amanda Kooser Feb. 4, 2013
http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-57567486-1/double-asteroid-trouble-may-have-wiped-out-dinosaurs/

Dinosaur-killing asteroid was a twin terror by Colin Barras,
New Scientist, February 2013
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23126-dinosaurkilling-asteroid-was-a-twin-terror.html

Research group suggests Chicxulub crater may have
been caused by binary asteroids, Phys.org, Feb. 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-02-group-chicxulub-crater-binary-asteroids.html

The paper is:

Miljkovic, K., G. S. Collins, S. Mannick, P. A. Bland, 2013,
Morphology and population of binary asteroid impact
craters. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 363,
pp. 121–132. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.12.033
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X12007194

A related paper is:

Bottke, H. J., and H. J. Melosh, 1996, Binary Asteroids
and the Formation of Doublet Craters. Icaerus.
vol. 124, pp. 372–391. PDF file at:
http://www.boulder.swri.edu/~bottke/Reprints/Bottke_Binary_Icarus_1996.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 5 February 2013

Holocene Start Impact Event Controversy Continues

Holocene Start Impact Event Controversy Continues

In “Holocene Start Impact Event Controversy Continues” at
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg110580.html
E.P. Grondine wrote,

“What Boslough did not mention or is not being reported
is several recent possible major astroblemes, such as (sic)
Ilturalde Crater and the Lloydminster Structure. Nor that
the layer of impactites has been independently confirmed
by others.”

First, if you would read Boslough et al. (2012) you will
find that the so-called “layer of impactites” and their
allegedly being “independently confirmed by others” is
discussed in detail their paper. Your complaint about
“layer of impactites” not being discussed is completely
groundless and wrong.

Second, although the Ilturralde Structure has the
appearance of a real impact structure, the best estimate
of it age seems to be 10,000 to 30,000 BP according to
Campbell et al. (1988, 1998). The older range of the
structure is based upon radiocarbon dates from "fossil
tree trunks" in permeable fluvial sediments in a tropical
climate. Given my experience with radiocarbon dates
from similar samples and matrix, their dates in the 30,000
BP range could very well be much older, even "dead"
samples contaminated by modern carbon in the
groundwater. In fact, Campbell et al. (1985) reports
dates of greater than 40,500 years BP for these deposits.
Thus, the maximum age of the sediment in which the
Ilturralde Structure, and the structure itself, is
developed could be considerably older than 30,000 BP,
even back to the last interglacial or more.

Thus from what little I can find, it is unknown exactly
how old this proposed crater might be. There is a lack
of any solid evidence for claiming that this feature
is contemporaneous with and part of a hypothesized
Younger Dryas impact event. Until such evidence is
published, it is premature to criticize anyone for not
discussing this hypothetical structure in association
with a hypothetical Younger Dryas event. If you want
the Ilturralde Structure discussed in a paper about the
Younger Dryas, you need to provide and formally publish
definitive evidence that it is an impact structure and
it is contemporaneous with the start of the Younger Dryas.

Even if the Ilturralde Structure is an impact “crater”
and dates to the Younger Dryas, any impact that forms an
8-km in diameter impact crater in soft sediments within
the Lower Amazon jungle of Bolivia very likely will not have
any significant effect in North America. Being soft-sediment,
the original transient crater, unlike Meteor Crater, which
is in rock, has completely collapsed. Thus, the diameter of
the original transient crater was significant smaller (by
kilometers ) in diameter than the current structure that
has only 3 meters of relief. Also, there are numerous
pollen sites and other documented and published
paleoenvironmental records lying between this circular
structure and North America that show a complete lack of
any environmental effects from any impact during the
Younger Dryas. It is highly implausible that an impact
associated with a structure of this size in soft sediment
is going to create the havoc that is argued to have occurred
in North America at the start of the Younger Dryas.

Boslough et al. (2012) did not need to mention the
Iturralde Structure because 1. it is not yet determined
to be an impact structure, 2. it is unknown if it is
contemporaneous with the start of the Younger Dryas,
3. it is unproven that this feature has any association with
a hypothetical Younger Dryas impact event and 4. it is
much too small to have been an impact that would have
had any effect on North America.

Some web pages are: "Iturralde Crater"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iturralde_Crater

And "Araona Crater (Iturralde Structure)"
http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000900/a000925/index.html

Third, petroleum and other geologists have studied in
great detail the geology of the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Area,
which apparently what you have repeatedly referred to
as your so-called "Lloydminster Structure," in east-central
Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan. If a person looks
though what has been published about it, including
structural maps, a person finds a complete absence of
any geological evidence that it either is an impact
structure or its development is associated with the start
of the Younger Dryas in any fashion. There is even a
complete lack of either any ring faulting or any other
circular structure(s) that can be used to define or
postulate the existence of an extraterrestrial impact in
within the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Area. According
interpretations made from the an abundance of available
geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from oil and gas
wells and innumerable seismic lines, the geological
structures are clearly the result of irregular collapse of
Cretaceous and overlying strata because of the subsurface
dissolution of thick Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite
rock salt that underlie these strata rest. If this is the so-
called "Lloydminster Structure," then enough has been
published about its origin to completely discredited this
alleged "structure" as a possible impact crater. There
is no need, in this case, to discuss an imaginary "crater"
that has never been formally proposed judging from
what I have so far found. For more details, consult
Gregor (1997), Kohlruss et al. (2010), and Orr et al. (1977)

It is nonsensical for Boslough et al. (2012) to have to
discuss every lake, “paleolagoon,” ring igneous intrusion,
other geologic structure, or other feature that someone,
often on the basis of a quite vivid imagination, speculates
to be an Younger Dryas impact crater without offering a
single shred of hard evidence. The circular and even
noncircular lakes, structures, and other features that
people interpret to be impact craters are seemingly
endless and uncountable. In fact, Boslough et al. (2012)
did take the time and space to discuss the geologically
illiterate claim that the Great Lakes are in part impact
craters.

Fourth, I will disregard the details of ill-tempered and
imaginary Vogon Poetry about another impact researcher
personal motivations. As with various Young Earth
creationists, some people obviously need to understand
that stating such fiction for mudslinging, and character
assassination involving other people's motivation and
character because they disagree with you is definitely
not a productive technique to win friends and positively
influenced people. They also need to understand that
fictional ad hominem attacks about personal motivations
are not an acceptable part of scientific discourse.
[Besides Boslough et al. (2012) has 16 coauthors. Are
you implying that they all have some sort personal
axes to grind? :-) :-) ]

Finally you, stated:

“"Denial" is a strange psychological mechanism, and
undoubtedly we will hear stories about how an
"asteroid impact did not kill the dinosaurs" for many
years to come.”

From what I have found, complaints about people, who
disagrees with a specific point of view, being in “denial”
is the standard silly, scientifically illiterate, and just
plain stupid psychobabble that I hear from Young Earth
creationists; supporters of Rand Flem-Ath’s / Charles
Hapgood’s ideas about Earth Crustal displacement; Ed
Conrad’s Carboniferous human bones; and supporters
of many other fringe pseudoscientific claims. This
whining about people being in “denial” at its most basic
level, an ad hominem attack on any person, who
disagrees with a specific pet idea or theory. I consider
it an ad hominem attack because it insinuates that their
disagreement is based, not on the facts, but on some
mental impairment. Again, such complaints about other
people being in "denial" neither wins friends and
positively influences people nor has anything to do
with scientific discourse.

Judging from what you argue about the Ilturralde
Structure and your imaginary "Lloydminster Structure,"
I suspect that if the age of the Chicxulub impact
structure was unknown that either you or someone else
would be arguing that it was also an Younger Dryas
impact structure as well. :-) :-) :-)

References Cited:

Boslough, M., K. Nicoll, V. Holliday, T. L. Daulton, D.
Meltzer, N. Pinter, A. C. Scott, T. Surovell, P. Claeys, J. Gill,
F. Paquay, J. Marlon, P. Bartlein, C. Whitlock, D. Grayson,
and A. J. T. Jull, 2012, Arguments and Evidence Against a
Younger Dryas Impact Event. , in Climates, Landscapes,
and Civilizations, Geophysical. Monograph Series, vol. 198,
edited by L. Giosan et al. 13–26, AGU, Washington,
D. C., doi:10.1029/2012GM001209.
http://www.agu.org/books/gm/v198/2012GM001209/2012GM001209.shtml

Campbell, K. E., Jr., C. D. Frailey, and L. J. Arrelano, 1985,
The geology of the Rio Beni: further evidence for Holocene
flooding in Amazônia. Contributions in Science. vol. 364,
pp. 1-18.

Campbell, K. E., Jr., R. A. F. Grieve, Z. Pacheco, and J. B.
Garvin, 1988, A Possible Impact Structure in Amazonian
Bolivia. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science
Conference, vol. 19, p. 163-164.

Campbell, K. E., Jr., R. A. F. Grieve, Z. Pacheco, and J. B.
Gavin, 1989, A newly discovered probable impact
structure in Amazonian Bolivia. National Geographic
Research. vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 495-499.

Gregor, V. A., 1997, Mannville Linear in the Lloydminster
Heavy Oil Area and Their Relationship to Fractures and
Fluid Flow in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.
In S. G. Pemberton and D. P. James, ed., pp. 428-474.
Petroleum Geology of the Mannville Group. Memoir no. 18,
Canadian Society of Petroleum Geology, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada.

Kohlruss, D. A. Marsh, G. Jensen, P. Pedersen, and G.
Chi, 2010, Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group
Sandstones in the Clearwater River Valley, Northwestern
Saskatchewan: Preliminary Observations, Bitumen
Sampling, and Mapping. In Summary of Investigations
2010, Volume 1, Miscellaneous Report 2010-4.1,
Paper A-1. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Regina,
Saskatchewan, Canada.

Orr, R. D., J. R. Johnston, and E. M. Manko, 1977, Lower
Cretaceous Geology And Heavy Oil Potential Of The
Lloydminster Area. Journal of Canadian Petroleum
Technology. vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1187-1221.

Best wishes,

Paul H.

Friday, 1 February 2013

Study Rebuts Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis

Study Rebuts Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis

Study rebuts hypothesis that comet attacks ended
9,000-year-old Clovis culture, Sandia National
Laboratories, Janury 30, 2013,
https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/clovis_rebuttal/

Clovis Comet Hypothesis Called 'Bogus' By
Credible Scientist, RedOrbit, January 30, 2013‎
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112774312/clovis-comet-theory-bogus-013013/

The paper is:

Boslough, M., K. Nicoll, V. Holliday, T. L. Daulton,
D. Meltzer, N. Pinter, A. C. Scott, T. Surovell, P.
Claeys, J. Gill, F. Paquay, J. Marlon, P. Bartlein,
C. Whitlock, D. Grayson, and A. J. T. Jull, 2012,
Arguments and Evidence Against a Younger Dryas
Impact Event. , in Climates, Landscapes, and
Civilizations, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 198,
edited by L. Giosan et al. 13–26, AGU, Washington,
D. C., doi:10.1029/2012GM001209.
http://www.agu.org/books/gm/v198/2012GM001209/2012GM001209.shtml

Best wishes,

Paul H.