Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Wednesday, 26 February 2014

Martian Micro-Tunnels And Carbon Spherules Revive Debate Over Martian Life

Martian Micro-Tunnels And Carbon Spherules Revive Debate Over Martian Life

Tiny Blobs and Tunnels in Meteorite Revive Debate
Over Life on Mars By Alan Boyle, NBC News, Feb. 2014,
http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/tiny-blobs-tunnels-meteorite-revive-debate-over-life-mars-n38431

Meteorite May Harbor Evidence of Mars Life.
by Mike White, Space.com, February 25, 2014
http://www.space.com/24816-mars-life-meteorite-debate.html

The paper is:
White L. M., E. K. Gibson, K. L. Thomas-Keprta S. J.
Clemett and D, S. McKay, 2014, Putative Indigenous
Carbon-Bearing Alteration Features in Martian Meteorite
Yamato 000593. Astrobiology. vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 170-181.

abstract: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/ast.2011.0733
PDF file: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/ast.2011.0733

Yours,
Paul H.

Age of Jack Hills, Australia, Zircons Revisited

Age of Jack Hills, Australia, Zircons Revisited

Rock around the clock: zircon crystal is oldest piece of
Earth by Reuters, The Telegraph, February 24, 2014.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/10657665/Rock-around-the-clock-zircon-crystal-is-oldest-piece-of-Earth.html

Gem discovered on Australian sheep farm is oldest piece
of the planet, The Guardian, February 24, 2103.
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/feb/24/gem-discovered-in-wa-is-oldest-piece-of-planet-earth

At 4.4 Billion Years Old, Oz Crystals Confirmed As World's
Oldest, NPR, Morning Edition, February 24, 2014 3:27 AM
http://www.npr.org/2014/02/24/280888059/at-4-4-billion-years-old-oz-crystals-confirmed-as-worlds-oldest


Rock of Ages: Microscopic 4.4 billion-year-old crystal is
the oldest-known fragment of Earth. Mail Online
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2566588/Rock-Ages-Microscopic-4-4-billion-year-old-crystal-oldest-known-fragment-Earth.html

Valley, J. W., A. J. Cavosie, T. Ushikubo, D. A. Reinhard,
D. F. Lawrence, D. J. Larson, P. H. Clifton, T. F. Kelly,
S. A. Wilde, D. E. Moser, and M. J. Spicuzza, 2014, Hadean
age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-
probe tomography. Nature Geoscience. Published online
23 February 2014, doi:10.1038/ngeo2075
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo2075.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 25 February 2014

Biggest observed meteorite impact' hits Moon

Biggest observed meteorite impact hits Moon

Biggest observed meteorite impact hits Moon
by Rebecca Morelle, BBC World Service
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-26325934

Meteorite smashes into moon in largest lunar
impact ever recorded, The Guardian
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/feb/24/meteorite-moon-largest-lunar-impact-recorded

Astronomers spot record-breaking lunar impact
Phys.Org, February 24, 2104
http://phys.org/news/2014-02-astronomers-record-breaking-lunar-impact.html

Yours,
Paul H.

For All of Paul V. Heinrich's "The e-Pistles of Paul ©2010 A.D."
http://theepistlesofpaul.blogspot.jp/

2014 The Year of "CERTAIN Uncertainty" ™; Meteors, Asteroids, Comets, and MORE!!

Monday, 24 February 2014

A new review paper about African impact structures

A new review paper about African impact structures

A new review paper about African impact structures
has been published online on the Journal of African
Earth Sciences’ web site. It is:

Reimold, W. U., and C. Koeberl, 2014, Impact structures
in Africa: A Review. Journal of African Earth Sciences
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.01.008
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464343X1400017X

It is currently an open access paper.

It discusses 20 confirmed impact structures;
49 proposed, but not yet confirmed structure; and
28 structures judged not to be of impact origin.

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 23 February 2014

Geological Atlas Of Africa (Carte Géologique De L'afrique) (1/5,000,000)

Geological Atlas Of Africa (Carte Géologique De L'afrique) (1/5,000,000)

A geologic atlas of Africa, scale 1/5,000,000, that can be
either viewed online or downloaded as a high resolution
jpg can be found on the World Soil Information web site at
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric?q=%22Carte+G%C3%A9ologique+de+l%27Afrique%22
http://www.isric.eu/
http://www.isric.eu/content/search-library-and-map-collection

The individual parts of this atlas are:

Notice Explicative : Carte Géologique de l'Afrique
(1/5,000,000) / Explanatory Note: Geological Map
of Africa \ Natural Resources Research IIIFuron, R.;
Lombard, J. (1964)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/24042

Geological Map of Africa. Legend.[Carte Géologique de
l'Afrique. légende]. Sheet No. 7. Association of African
Geological Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20037

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 1. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 1]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20038

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 2. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 2]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20039

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 3. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 3]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20040

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 4. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 4]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20041

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 5. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 5]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20042

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 6. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 6]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20043

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 8. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 8]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20044

Geological Map of Africa. Sheet No. 9. [Carte Géologique
de l'Afrique. Feuille No. 9]. Association of African Geological
Surveys (ASGA). (1963)
http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/isric/20045

Saturday, 22 February 2014

Dinosaur Track Stolen From Trail Near Moab, Utah (Photographs Included)

Dinosaur Track Stolen From Trail Near Moab, Utah (Photographs Included)

Ancient dinosaur track stolen from trail near Moab
by Mary Richards, Deseret News
http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865596971/Ancient-dinosaur-track-stolen-from-trail-near-Moab.html
and
http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865596971/Ancient-dinosaur-track-stolen-from-trail-near-Moab.html

'Priceless' Jurassic Era Dinosaur Tracks Stolen
From Utah Trail, NBC News, Feb. 21, 2014
http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/priceless-jurassic-era-dinosaur-tracks-stolen-utah-trail-n35506

Jurassic age dinosaur tracks stolen from Moab
trail, officials say by Natalie Crofts, Feb. 21, 2014
http://www.ksl.com/?sid=28784448&nid=148&title=jurassic-age-dinosaur-tracks-stolen-from-moab-trail-officials-say&fm=home_page&s_cid=queue-5

The story noted:

" The track was lifted out of Jurassic age Navajo sandstone
in the Hell's Revenge area, according to the Bureau of Land
Management."

Pictures at http://www.ksl.com/index.php?sid=28784448&nid=460&page=1#2

Hell’s Revenge web site athttp://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/fo/moab/recreation/motorized_routes/hell_s_revenge.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 21 February 2014

Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious

Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious

In "Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious"
Eman wrote:

"I ask again-- which of these other Russian field
researchers do you find credible. The ones that
say it is a double meteorite impact or the one
that says it is a UFO nuclear reactor engine
that went super critical many years after the UFO
hit and buried deeply below the surface?"

I find none of them credible. I never have found
any of these explanations credible. In other posts,
I have explicitly called this feature a classic
example of a "craterwrong," which indicates that
I clearly reject the idea that it is any sort of impact
crater. The UFO claims are clearly scientifically
illiterate pseudoscience that lack any hard evidence.
I agree that there is a complete lack of any evidence
of volcanism and that hypothesis can be readily
rejected. In fact, I prefer the term "Patom Cone"
because the term "crater" is misleading in its
implications as to its origin. I am have also noted
that what people suggested to be "pillow lava"
is not pillow lava. I would guess that what people
mistook for pillow lava is quite likely is spheroidal
weathering of sedimentary rocks. I do not and
never have regarded any of the above theories
as being credible.

I am quite happy and always been happy with it
being some sort of periglacial landform. If calling
it a "pingo," make you happy, then let it be a "pingo."
It is just that in some respects it is somewhat of
an atypical pingo in that there is only one of them.
That there is only one of them in its region indicate
that some sort of unique paleohydrological and
paleoclimatic conditions to lead to its formation.
regardless of what a person chooses to call this
landform.

Yours,

Paul H.

Musdtone Spheroids

Musdtone Spheroids

In "OT: musdtone spheroids" at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2014-February/002510.html
Tim asked:

"Paul, is spheroid weathering of mudstones equivalent
to weathering of concretions from the host rock? Or is
it a completely different process?"

They are completely different processes. Spheroidal
weathering is a form of chemical weathering of
systematically jointed bedrock that results in the
formation of concentric or spherical layers of highly
decayed rock within a surficial zone of weathered
bedrock known as “saprolite.” When the physical erosion
exposes bedrock altered by spheroidal weathering,
these layers peel (spall) off in concentric shells much
like the layers of an onion as it is is peeled. This
process often leaves behind rounded boulders, known
as corestones. Spheroid weathering is also known as
either "onion skin weathering," "concentric weathering,"
and "spherical weathering." However, "onion skin
weathering" is also used describe a different type of
weathering that also can produce rounded boulders.

An example of spheroidal weathering can be seen in
"File:Concentric spheroidal weathering in
granite.JPG" at
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Concentric_spheroidal_weathering_in_granite.JPG

Some references:

Buss, H. L., P. B. Sak, S. M. Webb, and S. L. Brantley 2008
Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo
Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation,
dissolution, and fracturing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica
Acta. vol. 72, pp. 4488–4507
http://www2.dickinson.edu/departments/geol/sak%20publications/Buss%20et%20al%20%202008.pdf
http://www2.dickinson.edu/departments/geol/Faculty/sak_pub.html

Chapman, R. W., and M. A. Greenfield, 1949, Spheroidal
weathering of igneous rocks. American Journal of Science.
vol. 247, no. 6, pp. 407-429.

Heald, M. T., T. J. Hollingsworth, and R. M. Smith,
1979, Alteration of Sandstone as Revealed by Spheroidal
Weathering. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. vol. 49,
no. 3, pp.s 901-909.

Ollier, C. D. (1971). Causes of spheroidal weathering.
Earth Science Reviews 7, 127-141.

Tim noted:

“I've seen both clearly defined concretions (sometimes
fossil bearing, thus my interest), and textures very
similar to the photos, both in mudstones (or I assume
so, I have often seen both occurring within a single
outcrop).”

Concretions are round. However, they form by the
cementation of sediments starting from a central point.
In case of concretions, mechanical weathering is simply
stripping poorly cemented matrix from the enclosed
well-cemented concretions to expose them.

Tim wrote,

“I should have known that throwing in a random
photo of rocks would be par for the course for an
article postulating about impacts of super-dense
celestial bodies and/or alien spacecraft. Otherwise
a great explanation!”

Offlist, I have been made aware of various YouTube
videos, which I was previously unaware. It is clear
from the Youtube videos that these features are
associated with the cones. I would suspect that the
pictures of spheroidal weathering are of the
weathered blocks of rock described as being part
the cone’s rubble. I would guess that the spheroidal
weathering is likely is part of a relict surficial
weathering zone (saprolite) that was broken up by
the formation of the cone.

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 20 February 2014

Erionite and Potential Health Hazards

Erionite and Potential Health Hazards

In recent posts to the Rockhound Mailing List, mention
is made of erionite and its potential health hazards.
An interesting article about it and its potential health
hazards is:

Pratt, Sarah E., 2012, Dangerous dust: Erionite - an
asbestos-like mineral causing a cancer epidemic in
Turkey – is found in at least 13 states. Earth
Magazine. vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 36 - 43.
http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/dangerous-dust-erionite-asbestos-mineral-causing-cancer-epidemic-turkey-found-least-13

Another article is “Erionite: An Emerging North
American Hazard,” NIOSH Science Blog, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2011/11/22/erionite/

A map showing the known occurrences of erionite
in the United States can be found in “Map:
Occurrences of Erionite” the NIOSH Science Blog,
for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2011/11/22/map-erionite/

A related US Geological Survey publication is:

Sheppard, R. S., 1996, Occurrences of erionite in
sedimentary rocks of the Western United States.
Open-File Report no. 96-18, United States Geological
Survey, Reston, Virginia. 24 pp.

http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr9618
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/0018/report.pdf

Finally, there is the Wikipedia article about Erionite
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erionite

Yours,

Paul H.



The Ancient Meandering Rivers of Mars

The Ancient Meandering Rivers of Mars

The Ancient Meandering Rivers of Mars
by Ian O'Neill, Discovery News, Feb. 3, 2104
http://news.discovery.com/space/the-ancient-meandering-rivers-of-mars-140203.htm
http://dannyboston.blogspot.com/2014/02/the-ancient-meandering-rivers-of-mars.html

Sinuous Ridges and Meanders
ESP_034189_1740: Fluvial Processes
http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/ESP_034189_1740
http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/ESP_034044_1740
http://static.uahirise.org/images/2014/details/cut/ESP_034189_1740-2.jpg

Fairen, A. G., N. S. Davies, and S. W. Squyres, 2013,
Equatorial Ground Ice and Meandering Rivers on Mars
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2948.pdf
44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, The
Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719, p.2948
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2948.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.



Monday, 17 February 2014

Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious was Strange (Landform) in Siberia

Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious was Strange (Landform) in Siberia

In “Pingos not so rare and not so mysterious was
Strange (Landform) in Siberia” at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2014-February/002504.html
Eman wrote:

“This file shows the basalt and tuff surface geology of
the Siberian Trapps--again covering the Irkustsk Region:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Extent_of_Siberian_traps_german.png
Note the extensive lobes of lava flow on the Irkustsk
southern border.”

The above inferences that are made above from an
extremely generalized and quite vague geologic map
from Wikipedia showing the extent of then Siberian
trap are completely wrong according to direct field
observations made of the geology of the Patom Cone
(a.k.a. Patomsky crater, Patom crater, or Eagle Nest)
by Soviet and Russian geologists, who have visited it.
Both the Wikipedia map and especially its source map
on the Mantle Plumes web site are quite useless in
determining the local geology of the Patom Cone.
These maps lack the needed resolution; their scale is
much too small; and their outcrops are far too
generalized to be of any use. Descriptions of the local
geology of Patom Cone area by Alekseyev (2012),
Antipin and Fedorov (2008), and Ermolin et al. (2011)
all demonstrate that volcanic rocks associated with the
Siberian Traps or any other volcanism are completely
absent from the immediate vicinity of the Patom Cone.
Instead, the local bedrock consists of folded, Proterozoic
limestones and quartz sandstones of the Mariinsk
Formation The Patom Cone rests directly on the
southwestward dipping limestones of the Mariinsk
Formation as shown the above papers.

Eman also wrote:

“Now consult the ground or space photos ( original
links and/or Goggle Earth) of this cone and note the
apparent adjacent lava strata exposures and their down
slope orientation.”

Geological maps in the published literature, i.e.
Figure 2 of Antipin and Fedorov (2008), clearly
demonstrate that the “apparent adjacent lava strata
exposures” consist only of Proterozoic limestone and
quartz sandstone of the Mariinsk Formation. They
are dipping to the southwest at 25 to 40 degrees.

Eman also wrote:

“This is consistent with the formation conditions for
pingo and also explains the presence of a block of
"pillow lava" in the cone's center.”

Descriptions of lithology of the rock comprising the
Patom Cone can be found in Alekseyev (2012) and
Antipin and Fedorov (2008) In these descriptions of the
Patom Crater that can be found in the above papers,
there is a complete lack of any mention of any pillow
lava or any other volcanic rock having been found in
rock that comprises the Patom Cone. Specifically the
Patom Cone consists of 1 massive crystalline limestones
with quartz–muscovite carbonate veins; 2. Massive
fine-grained crystalline limestones with quartz veins;
and 3. weathered limestone rubble with rare blocks
of metamorphosed sandstones and schists. No mention
is made in any of the published papers that I have
found of the occurrence of either “pillow lavas” or
other volcanic rocks either in or associated with this
landform. Finally, the uncaptioned web page images,
which have been interpreted to be pillow lavas, are
clearly not pillow lavas. More likely, the features seen
in these images are the either spheroidal weathering
of highly deformed mudstones. There is a complete
absence of any documented evidence in the published
literature for the occurrence of Siberian traps or any
other volcanic rocks within the immediate vicinity the
Patom Cone.

One problem is that I cannot find any discussion of
where the pictures that have been interpreted to be
"pillow lava" were taken. It is unknown whether pictures
of the so-called "pillow lavas" are of either part of the
Patom Cone or adjacent outcrops.

Eman also wrote:

“Were this a feature (Patomsky Krater) studied by a
present day geologist…”

According to the published literature, the Patom Cone
was discovered in 1949 and has been periodically
studied and published on by Russian and Soviet
geologists since 1951 up until a 2012 paper, Alekseyev
(2012). The published literature clearly demonstrates
that “present day geologists” have been studying and
publishing on the Patom Cone. One problem is that
“naive photo journalists” and bloggers have ignored the
published research and instead decided to be
entertaining over being scientific. The other problem
is that much of the published literature is in Russian
and buried in paper publications with the exception
of the papers that can be found online. Fortunately, my
wife is fluent in both Russian and English and can
translate Russian-language geology papers for me.

As far as the Patom Cone being an unique structure,
Antipin and Fedorov (2008) noted that they have
searched the region of the Patom Cone in detail. As
Russian geologists, they and the Soviet geologists
before them would have access to aerial photocopy
that outside geologists would not have access to.
Antipin and Fedorov (2008) specifically states:

“Patom Crater (Fig. 1) is unique and the only object
of this kind in the vast area of Patom Highland.”

Since 1951, i.e. Kolpakov (1951), Soviet and Russian
geologists have been searching the region for additional
landforms like the of the Patom Cone and have found
none. If they conclude that it is an unique landform for
the region, I have to go along with their evaluation
unless someone can provide hard, well-documented
evidence to the contrary instead of hypothetical arm-
waving about how difficult it is to search the region.

I have met and know Soviet field geologists enough to
know that they are quite capable of mapping of geology
under very difficult circumstance in the field. Also, the
Soviet government and later the current Russian
government and private companies have devoted
enormous resources to geological mapping, including
the use of aerial imagery and other remote sensing, that
far exceeds what western governments had even begun
of thinking of doing. They have a an amazing grasp of
the geology of Russia that seems to be greatly
underestimated and underappreciated on this list. In
addition, the area of the Patom Cone has been the subject
of very detailed studies and searches using dedicated
aerial imagery and geophysical methdos in past several
years as noted in Alekseyev (2012). From what I have
found the Soviet and Russian geologists, who have
studied this landform, regard it as being unique within
the Patom Highlands in which it lies.

I agree that the Patom Cone is likely an odd sort of
periglacial landform, possibly related to pingos. However,
it is far more complicated in origin than being just
another “pingo.” Mindlessly dismissing this feature as a
“pingo” grossly disregards the unique features of this
landform that have been discussed in detail by the
geologists, i.e. Alekseyev (2012), Antipin and Fedorov
(2008), Antipin et al. (2011), Ermolin (2011), and
Kolpakov (1951), who have studied this landform in
the field and published on it.

References Cited

Alekseyev ,V.R., 2012. Cryovolcanism and the mystery
of the Patom cone. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics.
vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 289–307. doi:10.5800/GT-2012-3-3-0075.
http://popovgeo.professorjournal.ru/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=22997&folderId=69343&name=DLFE-36927.pdf
http://gt.crust.irk.ru/images/upload/tblarticle83/magazin83.pdf
http://gt.crust.irk.ru/article_83.html and
http://gt.crust.irk.ru/magazin2012_3.en.html

Antipin, V. S., and A. M. Fedorov, 2008, The origin of
Patom Crater, East Siberia, from geological and
geochemical data. Doklady Earth Sciences. vol. 423,
no. 2, pp. 1335-1339
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1028334X08090018

Antipin, V. S., A. M. Fedorov, S. I. Dril’, and V. I. Voronin,
2011, The new data on the origin of the Patom Crater (East
Siberia). Doklady Earth Sciences. vol. 440, no. 2, pp. 1391-1395
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1028334X11100187

Ermolin, E., O. Ingerov, and А. Saviсhev, 2012, Results of
AMT survey of Patom crater area. Extended Abstract, 21st
EM Induction Workshop Darwin, Australia, July 25-31, 2012.
http://www.21emiw.com/LiteratureRetrieve.aspx?ID=117868\\\

Kolpakov, V.V., 1951. A mysterious crater in the Patom
highland. Priroda. vol. 2, pp. 58–59.

Other papers expressing diverse opinions are:

Stazhevskii, S. B., 2011, Origination and development
mechanics of the Earth's morphostructures. Part I: Etiology
and evolution of the Patomsky crater. Journal of Mining
Science. vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 413-426.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1062739147040034

Stazhevskii, S. B., 2012, Origination and development
mechanics of the Earth’s morphostructures. Part II: The
nature of diatreme, karst and trappean formations, and
the Chicxulub Crater origin. Journal of Mining Science.
vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 55-70.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1062739148010078

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 16 February 2014

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landform) in Siberia, Russia

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landform) in Siberia, Russia

In "[Rockhounds] Really Strange Geological
Structure (Landform) in Siberia, Russia" at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2014-February/002474.html
wagoner asked:

"I pose one question out of curiosity (and probably
ignorance) - why is there only one of these
structures that has been found there in Russia?"

That is a very important and significant question.
if this feature was either a pingo or cyrotovolcano,
I would expect that there should be more of them
in the region. The uniqueness of this feature is a
problem as well for the impact origin hypothesis.
Given the number of known impact structures on
Earth and Mars, there should be other known
features like this among recognized impact structures.
Why there are not more features like the Potam
Cone either within the region or elsewhere is an
important point that needs to be explained in any
hypothesis that a person proposes for the origin of
this landform.

wagoner asked:

"It seems odd to me that there would only
be one, if indeed there is only one. Harry W."

I agree with you that the unique nature of this
landform is extremely odd. There is a geologic
structure in Louisiana, the Zenoria / Little Creek
structure, that is also unique and currently
unexplained.

Echols, J. B., and R. P. McCulloh, 2000, Little
Creek Structure, T9N-R2E, La Salle Parish,
Louisiana. Search and Discovery Article #50001
American Association of Petroleum Geologists,
Tulsa, Oklahoma.
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/echols/index.htm

Echols, J. B., and R. P. McCulloh, 1998, Little
Creek Structure, T9N-R2E, La Salle Parish,
Louisiana. Basin Research Institute Bulletin.
vol. 8, pp. 30-39. (November 1998)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/207276900/Little-Creek-Structure-La-Salle-Parish-Louisiana

The unique nature of the Little Creek structure
and the Patom Cone might indicate that an unique
combination of processes came together to create
them. That means trying to explain either of these
features by a single, common-place process might
be not useful in trying to explain their origin.

In "[Rockhounds] Russian Oddity" at
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2014-February/002475.html
Fisher noted
"I commented only on the two photos at the end
of that article. I said that they looked like either
pillow lava or concretions in mudstone to me.
That's what I saw, your results may differ."

These pictures are fascinating and likely significant
clues to the origin of the Patom Cone. In my opinion,
they are neither pillow lava nor concretions. Instead,
they look like intensively deformed mudstone. It would
be helpful, if there were captions that described what
the field geologists identified these structures as and
where exactly they were found.

Yours,

Paul H.

Paper About Asbestos Ourcrops In Southern Nevada

Paper About Asbestos Ourcrops In Southern Nevada

Given the discussion about the Clear Creek Management
area in California, a paper discussing the concerns about
outcropping asbestos in southern Nevada was published
in the Science Society of America Journal in December.
This paper discusses the concerns about asbestos outcrops.
The PDF file of it is open access, which means anyone can
download it.

A newspaper article about it is:

Geologists discover naturally occurring asbestos fibers in
Southern Nevada. Las Vegas Review-Journal, Dec. 25, 2013,
http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/geologists-discover-naturally-occurring-asbestos-fibers-southern-nevada

The paper is:

Buck, B. J., D. Goossens. R. V. Metcal, B. McLaurin,
M. Ren and F. Freudenberger, 2013, Naturally Occurring
Asbestos: Potential for Human Exposure, Southern
Nevada, USA. Science Society of America Journal.
vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 2192-2204 doi:10.2136/sssaj2013.05.0183

The abstract is at:
https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/77/6/2192
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/77/6/2192

The open-access PDF file is at
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/sssaj/pdfs/77/6/2192

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 13 February 2014

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landform) in Siberia, Russia

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landform) in Siberia, Russia

In "Really Strange Geological Structure (Landform)
in Siberia, Russia" at:
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2014-February/002457.html

James wrote:

"Stay skeptical, my friends!"

I agree with you that it is not an impact crater and a person
has to be skeptical of such claims given that Google Earth
fans have a habit of claiming any circular or elliptical pond,
digital artifact, or feature that they find is an impact crater.
That is why I called it a "craterwrong,"which is my
companion term to the popular "meteorwrong" of meteorite
collectors.

For examples of other craterwrongs, go see:

1. The Manuel Benavides Craterwrong and Cratermania
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg92117.html

2. Preliminary Evaluation of a Proposed “Younger Dryas
Impact” Crater
https://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg102013.html

3. An Evaluation of the Proposed Spratly Islands
Impact Structure
https://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg115764.html

Searching the Internet, I found that The Russian landsform
has a number of names by which it is known. They include
the “Eagle Nest,” “Patomsky Crater,” " Patom Crater,"
and “Patom Cone.” I like “Patom Cone” because it is
nongeneric as to its origin.

I found one paper about the Patom Cone that argues it to
be a "cryovolcano." This paper is:

Alekseyev V.R., 2012. Cryovolcanism and the mystery
of the Patom cone. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics.
vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 289–307. doi:10.5800/GT-2012-3-3-0075.

PDF file at
http://popovgeo.professorjournal.ru/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=22997&folderId=69343&name=DLFE-36927.pdf
and http://gt.crust.irk.ru/images/upload/tblarticle83/magazin83.pdf

Abstract at http://gt.crust.irk.ru/article_83.html
and http://gt.crust.irk.ru/magazin2012_3.en.html

Unfortunately the main text is it Russian. As a result,
I do not know the specifics of the arguments that this
paper makes.

An extended abstract about this landform is:

Ermolin, E., O. Ingerov, and А. Saviсhev, 2012, Results of
AMT survey of Patom crater area. Extended Abstract, 21st
EM Induction Workshop Darwin, Australia, July 25-31, 2012.
http://www.21emiw.com/LiteratureRetrieve.aspx?ID=117868

Additional web pages are:

Fifth Expedition to the Patom Crater Gives Striking
Results, Lake Baikal Fund, July 27, 2011
http://baikalfund.ru/eng/news/article.wbp?article_id=480b33b9-7ac6-4e36-b390-7b6ddf10f804

Imaggeo on Mondays: Pitter-patter of little paws in Patomsky
crater. by Dmitry Demezhko, Geolog, European Geosciences
Union, February 10, 2014.
http://geolog.egu.eu/2014/02/10/imaggeo-on-mondays-pitter-patter-of-little-paws-in-patomsky-crater/

There is even a Wikipedia page about it at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patomskiy_crater

For the people, who have Google Earth the location of this
landform is 59.28449°N 116.58954° (59.28449°N 116.58954°E)

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 12 February 2014

One of the Strangest Landforms That I Ever Seen (Siberia, Russia)

One of the Strangest Landforms That I Ever Seen (Siberia, Russia)

Hi,
Searching the Internet, I found that this landform has a
number of names by which it is known. They include the
“Eagle Nest,” “Patomsky Crater,” and “Patom Cone.” I like
“Patom Cone” because it is nongeneric as to its origin.

I found one paper about the Patom Cone that argues it to
be a "cryovolcano." This paper is:

Alekseyev V.R., 2012. Cryovolcanism and the mystery
of the Patom cone. Geodynamics & Tectonophysics.
vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 289–307. doi:10.5800/GT-2012-3-3-0075.

PDF file at
http://popovgeo.professorjournal.ru/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=22997&folderId=69343&name=DLFE-36927.pdf
and http://gt.crust.irk.ru/images/upload/tblarticle83/magazin83.pdf

Abstract at http://gt.crust.irk.ru/article_83.html
and http://gt.crust.irk.ru/magazin2012_3.en.html

Unfortunately the main text is it Russian and My wife is
to busy at work to translate it for me this week. As a
result, I do not know the specifics of the arguments that
this paper makes.

An extended abstract about this landform is:

Ermolin, E., O. Ingerov, and А. Saviсhev, 2012, Results of
AMT survey of Patom crater area. Extended Abstract, 21st
EM Induction Workshop Darwin, Australia, July 25-31, 2012.
http://www.21emiw.com/LiteratureRetrieve.aspx?ID=117868

Additional web pages are:

Fifth Expedition to the Patom Crater Gives Striking
Results, Lake Baikal Fund, July 27, 2011
http://baikalfund.ru/eng/news/article.wbp?article_id=480b33b9-7ac6-4e36-b390-7b6ddf10f804

Imaggeo on Mondays: Pitter-patter of little paws in Patomsky
crater. by Dmitry Demezhko, Geolog, European Geosciences
Union, February 10, 2014.
http://geolog.egu.eu/2014/02/10/imaggeo-on-mondays-pitter-patter-of-little-paws-in-patomsky-crater/

There is even a Wikipedia page about it at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patomskiy_crater

For the people, who have Google Earth the location of this
landform is 59.28449°N 116.58954° (59.28449°N 116.58954°E)

Yours,

Paul H.

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landfrom) in Siberia, Russia

Really Strange Geological Structure (Landfrom) in Siberia, Russia

A really strange landform has made the news in Russia
and now has appeared in the Mail Online. Articles with
pictures and rather weird speculation about meteorites
and

What (or who) created Siberia's 'Eagle's Nest'?
A meteorite, a nuke or gulag inmates? Scientists
baffled by Sarah Griffids, Mail Online, Feb. 7, 2014
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2553841/Siberian-eagles-nest-continues-baffle-scientists-Theories-250-year-old-mound-formed-range-meteorite-strike-nuclear-blast.html

Huge Eagle Nest in woods, English Russia,May 27, 2013
http://englishrussia.com/2013/05/27/huge-eagle-nest-in-the-woods/

What created this mysterious Siberian crater? by Kate
Baklitskaya, The Siberian Times, October 14, 2012
http://www.sott.net/article/264671-What-created-this-mysterious-Siberian-crater

This is certainly not an impact crater. This is certainly
one of the strangest craterwrong that I have ever seen.
Some of the various theories that have been proposed
for its origins are mentioned in:

Patomsky crater - the nest of fire Eagle. Unknown Russia
http://runknown.com/patomsky-crater-the-nest-of-fire-eagle

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 11 February 2014

High-precision Timeline for End-Permian Extinction

High-precision Timeline for End-Permian Extinction

End-Permian Extinction Was Nearly Instantaneous,
According To MIT Researchers, RedOrbit, Feb. 11, 2014
http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1113068160/mass-extinction-happened-faster-than-previously-believed-021114/

It Took 60,000 Years to Kill Nearly Everything on
Earth by Becky Oskin, Live Science, Feb. 10, 2014
http://www.livescience.com/43245-permian-mass-extinction-duration.html

Giant mass extinction may have been quicker than
previously thought, Science News, Tuesday, Feb. 11, 2014
http://esciencenews.com/articles/2014/02/11/giant.mass.extinction.may.have.been.quicker.previously.thought

An extinction in the blink of an eye. MIT researchers
find that the end-Permian extinction happened in
60,000 years — much faster than earlier estimates.
Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office, February 10, 2014
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2014/an-extinction-in-the-blink-of-an-eye-0210.html

The paper is:

Burgess, S. D., S. Bowring, and S.-Z. Shen, 2014,
High-precision timeline for Earth’s most severe
extinction PNAS 2014 ; published ahead of print
February 10, 2014, doi:10.1073/pnas.1317692111
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/02/04/1317692111.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.



One of the Strangest Landforms That I Ever Seen (Siberia, Russsia)

One of the Strangest Landforms That I Ever Seen (Siberia, Russsia)

A really strange landform has made the news in Russia
and now has appeared in the Mail Online. Articles with
pictures and rather weird speculation about meteorites
and all sorts of other processes that might have created it.

What (or who) created Siberia's 'Eagle's Nest'?
A meteorite, a nuke or gulag inmates? Scientists
baffled by Sarah Griffids, Mail Online, Feb. 7, 2014
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2553841/Siberian-eagles-nest-continues-baffle-scientists-Theories-250-year-old-mound-formed-range-meteorite-strike-nuclear-blast.html

Huge Eagle Nest in woods, English Russia,May 27, 2013
http://englishrussia.com/2013/05/27/huge-eagle-nest-in-the-woods/

What created this mysterious Siberian crater? by Kate
Baklitskaya, The Siberian Times, October 14, 2012
http://www.sott.net/article/264671-What-created-this-mysterious-Siberian-crater

This is certainly one of the strangest craterwrongs that
I have ever seen. Some of the various theories that have
been proposed for its origins are mentioned in:

Patomsky crater - the nest of fire Eagle. Unknown Russia
http://runknown.com/patomsky-crater-the-nest-of-fire-eagle

I would be interested in what the people on this list
think about what might have created this pile of rock?

Does anyone know what is being said about it among
Russian geologists and geomorphologists?

Whatever, it is, it is quite young.

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 6 February 2014

Historic Online Tektite Publications

Historic Online Tektite Publications

Some free PDF files of historic publications about
tektites are:

Baker, G., 1944, Flanges of Australites. Memoirs
of the National Museum of Victoria. no. 14, pt. I
https://archive.org/details/MemoirsNational14Nati

Baker, G., 1946, tektites. Memoirs of the National
Museum of Victoria. vol. 23
https://archive.org/details/MemoirsNational23Nati

There are some publications of historical interest in
the NASA archive. They include:

O'Keefe, J. A. 1974, Tektite and Their Origins.
https://archive.org/details/nasa_techdoc_19750015372

Chapman, D. R., and H. K . Larson, 1963, NASA
The Lunar Origin of Tektites. Technical Note 0-1556
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field , Calif.
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19630003053_1963003053.pdf

O'Keefe, J. A., 1960, The Origin of Tektites
Note D-490, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
http://www.ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19980227350_1998390357.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

NASA Sued Over "Jelly Doughnut"

NASA Sued Over "Jelly Doughnut"

The silly season is again upon us with another
lawsuit has been filed over extraterrestrial lifeforms.
This time it is not over an extraterrestrial lifeform
in a so-called "meteorite," but over a rock, called
the "Jelly Doughnut" recently photographed by the
rover Opportunity. It is discussed in “Astrobiologist”
sues NASA, says Mars rock a “mushroom-like
fungus” ArsTechnica, Janary 29, 2014 at:
http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/01/unconvinced-that-jelly-donut-sized-mars-rock-was-just-a-rock-man-sues-nasa/

And "Alien life on Mars? NASA lawsuit seeks more
information on Red Planet rock." Russia Today News
http://rt.com/news/nasa-lawsuit-life-mars-440/

The text of the lawsuit is in “Rhawn Joseph sues NASA” at
http://www.scribd.com/doc/202863315/NASA-Lawsuit

This is not the first time that he has sued NASA as
seen in "[Utah-astronomy] Fw: NASA Served With
Lawsuit By Rhawn Josep…" at:
http://mailman.xmission.com/lurker/list/message/20120615.014923.43ced1d7.en.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20140205200306/http://mailman.xmission.com/lurker/list/message/20120615.014923.43ced1d7.en.html

On page 6, it is stated:

" 21. In 2011, Petitioner published a genetic analyses
of DNA evolution, beginning with the first life forms
to take up residence of Earth, and was able to trace
the evolution of DNA to over 10 billion years into the
past, 6 billion years before Earth was formed."

This reminds me of an article discussed in:

Researchers use Moore's Law to calculate that life began
before Earth existed by Bob Yirk, PHysOrg, April 18, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-04-law-life-began-earth.html

The article is:

An " Life Before Earth" by Alexei A. Sharov and Richard
Gordon, arXiv.org, physics, arXiv:1304.3381 (Submitted
on 28 Mar 2013) http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.3381

One of the sources that this article cites is an earlier
article by Rhawn Joseph. This article is:

Joseph, Rhawn. 2009. Life on Earth came from other
planets. Journal of Cosmology. vol. 1, pp. 1-56.
http://journalofcosmology.com/Cosmology1.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 5 February 2014

Paleolakes and Fluvial Channels on Mars

Paleolakes and Fluvial Channels on Mars

Paleolakes on Mars: Post by Dr. Gino Erkeling, Institut für
Planetologie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster,
Germany
http://planetarygeomorphology.wordpress.com/2014/02/04/paleolakes-on-mars/

Fluvial channels in Central Pit Craters: Post by Samantha
Peel Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University
of Tennessee, USA.
http://planetarygeomorphology.wordpress.com/2014/01/01/fluvial-channels-in-central-pit-craters/

Yours,

Paul H.