Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Sunday, 28 February 2010

Meteorite Impacts and Australian Aboriginal Geomythology

Meteorite Impacts and Australian Aboriginal Geomythology

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 28 00:36:32 EST 2010

1. Hamacher, D.W., and P. P. Norris, 2009, Australian
Aboriginal Geomythology: eyewitness accounts of
cosmic impacts? Archaeoastronomy. vol. ??, No. ??,
pp. ??-??.

http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:kqaMcpBN-zEJ:www.warawara.mq.edu.au/aboriginal_astronomy/literature/Aboriginal_Cosmic_Impacts.pdf+Australian+Aboriginal+Geomythology:+eyewitness+accounts+of+cosmic+impacts%3F&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Hamacher, D. W, 2009, Meteorite Falls and Cosmic
Impacts in Australian Aboriginal Mythology. 72nd
Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held
July 13-18, 2009 in Nancy, France. Published in
Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement., p.5005

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2009/pdf/5005.pdf
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009M%26PSA..72.5005H

Duane Willis Hamacher II CURRICULUM VITAE
http://www.warawara.mq.edu.au/pdf/duane_cv.pdf
http://mq.academia.edu/DuaneHamacher

This Vitae lists some other impact related papers:

Hamacher, D.W., and P. P. Norris, 2010, “Falling
Star at Puka”: using Aboriginal oral traditions to
locate undiscovered meteorite falls and impact craters.
In Ilgarijiri – things belonging to the sky, edited by
Ray Norris. Proceedings of the AIATSIS symposium
on Australian Indigenous Astronomy, 27 November
2009, Canberra, Australia, Aboriginal Studies Press.

Hamacher, D.W., C. O’Neill, A. Buchel, and T. R.
Britton, 2010, A newly discovered meteorite crater in
Palm Valley, Central Australia. Meteoritics & Planetary
Science - in preparation

2. Emu Dreaming! - Aboriginal Astronomy
http://www.warawara.mq.edu.au/aboriginal_astronomy/

Literature on Aboriginal Astonomy & Aboriginal Cultures
http://www.warawara.mq.edu.au/aboriginal_astronomy/literature.php

This page includes:

Bevan, A., and P. Bindon, 1996, Australian Aborigines
and Meteorites. Records of the Western Australian
Museum. vol. 18, pp. 93-101.

Also, there is a full length web page about the proposed
Palm Valley impact crater within the Finke Gorge National
Park in the Northern Territory, Australia. It is "“Google,
Dreaming lead to crater discovery” – the REAL story...
from the horse’s mouth" at:

http://www.warawara.mq.edu.au/aboriginal_astronomy/Puka.htm

3. Ray Norris's Publications (complete list)
http://www.atnf.csiro.au/people/rnorris/papers/papers.htm

Norris, R. P., and D. W. Hamacher, 2009, The Astronomy
of Aboriginal Australia. in The Role of Astronomy in Society
and Culture Proceedings, D. Valls-Gabaud and A. Boksenberg,
eds., pp. 10-17. IAU Symposium No. 260, 2009

http://www.warawara.mq.edu.au/aboriginal_astronomy/literature/Norris_Hamacher_2009.pdf

4. Geomythology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myth_and_geology

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 27 February 2010

Trinitite was "Who is Dr. LaPaz"

Trinitite was "Who is Dr. LaPaz"

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sat Feb 27 01:26:14 EST 2010

In the thread [meteorite-list] "Who is Dr. LaPaz" at
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2010-February/061407.html

Shawn Alan asked:

"Lastly, along with the meteorite specimens I also received
a trinitite fragment weighing at 1.79g that he had collected
from the Trinity project and was wondering if people on
the list knew much about this stuff."

Go look at;

1. "Trinitite" at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinitite

2. Parekh, P. P.. T. M. Semkow, M. A. Torres, D. K. Haines,
J. M. Cooper, P. M. Rosenberg and M. E. Kitto, 2006,
Radioactivity in Trinitite six decades later. Journal of
Environmental Radioactivity. vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 103–112.

Abstract at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.01.017

PDF file at

http://www.ecolo.org/documents/documents_in_english/Trinitite-JER-2006.pdf

3. Trinitite Varieties Steven L. Kay, Nuclearon

http://www.radiochemistry.org/documents/pdf/trinitite_nuclearon_061608.pdf

4. Ross, C. S., 1948, Optical properties of glass from
Alamogordo, New Mexico. American Mineralogist. vol 33,
no 5-6, pp. 360-363.

http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM33/AM33_360.pdf
http://www.minsocam.org/msa/collectors_corner/amtoc/toc1948.htm

5. Eby, G. N., N. Charley, and J. A., Smoliga, 2010, and
Trinitite - The Atomic Clock. Geological Society of America
Abstracts with Programs. vol. . 42, no. 1, p. 77.

http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2010NE/finalprogram/abstract_169905.htm

6. Pittauerova, D., nd, Trinitite Radioactivity of trinitite after
62 years. Radioactivity Measurements Laboratory, Universitat
Breman.

http://www.radioaktivitaet.uni-bremen.de/Seminar/Trinitite.pdf

Reading about the bomb tests from Pittauerova (nd).

Rhodes, Richard, 1986, The Making of the Atomic Bomb.
Simon and Schuster, New York

Szasz, Ferene, 1984, The Day the Sun Rose Twice.
University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque

Jungk, Robert, 1958, Brighter than a Thousand Suns:
A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists. Harcourt
Brace, New York.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Jungk

A related paper is:

Whitehead, N. E., S. Endo, K. Tanaka, T. Takatsuji, M. Hoshi,
S. Fukutani, R.G. Ditchburn, and A. Zondervan. 2007, A
preliminary study on the use of 10Be in forensic radioecology
of nuclear explosion sites. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity.
vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 260-270.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17904707

Yours,

Paul H.

Meteorite Men Comment

Meteorite Men Comment

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sat Feb 27 00:48:02 EST 2010

Dear Friends,

Meteorite Men is a great show. personally, I feel
that it has a nice mix of science, humor, entertainment,
and droll, low-key "adventure" that many shows needs
to have.

From my job, I can tell that bit definitely has generated
a lot of interest in Louisiana, with a very definite increase
in inquiries, about meteorites and meteorite hunting
received by other geologists and I. There have been a
bunch of rocks, some of which have been lying in people's
closets for decades. Unfortunately, they have so far
been meteorwrongs and even one craterwrong. However,
a person never knows when that meteorite that has been
either sitting in someone''s porch as doorstop or in their
garage for the past few years will finally make it way
into my or some other geologist's office possibly because
of the interest generated by "Meteorite Men".

One of the more strange meteorwrongs was a gneiss
boulder about 1.5 to 2 meters in diameter that got pulled
up in a fishing net off Grand Island, Lafourche Parish.
The most frustrating meteorwrongs in Louisiana are
"bog iron ores", which form in permanently saturated
coastal plain soils and often are associated with springs.
Pieces of this material have an unfortunate tendency of
being dense, pitch black, and even magnetic. Certain
pieces are troublesome because neither I nor any other
geologist feel comfortable, despite what intuition says,
about judging them as definite meteorwrongs without
being able to inspect them in person.

I have been tempted to suggest to to a soil scientist, whom
I worked with, that looking at the genesis of these "bog
iron ores" would be a worthwhile project for a Masters
thesis for some student. I and another geologist can at least
now point out a number of places where they can be
studied. They have a strange, although quite terrestrial,
mineralogy.

Yours,

Paul H.
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
http://www.scribd.com/etchplain

Tuesday, 23 February 2010

The Convincing Identification of Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Strutures

The Convincing Identification of Terrestrial Meteorite Impact Strutures

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Tue Feb 23 23:19:36 EST 2010

French, B. M., and C. Koeberl, 2010, The convincing
identification of terrestrial meteorite impact structures:
What works, what doesn't, and why. Earth-Science
Reviews. vol. 98, no. 1-2, pp. 123-170.

Abstract at:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.10.009
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235802%232010%23999019998%231570149%23FLA%23&_cdi=5802&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=2e423780e17d5ed60d7ca17a1faf9e9b

The PDF file for this paper and issue is open access
and can be freely downloaded.

Yours,

Paul H.

A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction

A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Tue Feb 23 22:46:23 EST 2010

Deenen, M.H.L., M. Ruhl, N.R. Bonis, W. Krijgsman,
W.M. Kuerschner, M. Reitsma, M.J. van Bergen, 2010,
A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 291,
no. 1-4, pp. 113-125.

Abstract at:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.003

PDF file at:
http://www.geo.uu.nl/~forth/publications/Deenen_2010a.pdf
http://www.geo.uu.nl/~forth/people/Martijn/Martijn.htm

In part, the abstract reads:

"The transition from the Triassic to Jurassic Period, initiating
the ‘Age of the dinosaurs’, approximately 200 Ma, is marked
by a profound mass extinction with more than 50% genus
loss in both marine and continental realms."

and

"We show that the oldest CAMP basalts are diachronous by
20 kyr across the Atlantic Ocean, and that these two volcanic
pulses coincide with the end-Triassic extinction interval in the
marine realm. Our results support the hypotheses of Phanerozoic
mass extinctions resulting from emplacement of Large Igneous
Provinces (LIPs) and provide crucial time constraints for
numerical modelling of Triassic–Jurassic climate change and
global carbon-cycle perturbations."

Yours,

Paul H.

Age of the Dakhleh impact event

Age of the Dakhleh impact event

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Tue Feb 23 22:36:27 EST 2010

Renne, R. P., H. P. Schwarcz, M. R. Kleindienst,
G. R. Osinski, and J. J. Donovan, 2010, Age of the
Dakhleh impact event and implications for Middle
Stone Age archeology in the Western Desert of Egypt.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 29, No. 1-4,
pp. 201–206

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.014

In part the abstract reads:

"Dakhleh Glass comprises a suite of chemically distinctive
and heterogeneous glassy rocks that occur over an area of
ca. 400 km2 in and around the Dakhleh Oasis in central
western Egypt."

and

"The age of the impact event is determined from a
compositionally filtered subset of the data that yield an
isochron age of 145 ± 19 ka."

Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt
http://epsc.wustl.edu/~kieniewicz/dakhleh_oasis.htm
http://www.dakhleh.com/publications.htm

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 21 February 2010

Abstract About Younger Dryas Event Record In Midwest Lake Deposits

Abstract About Younger Dryas Event Record In Midwest Lake Deposits

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 21 23:57:21 EST 2010

Dear Friends,

I came across the following abstract about ongoing research
concerning trhe Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. It is:

Gill, J. L., J. P. Marsicek, J. P. Donnelly, B. Simonson, and
J. W. Williams, 2009, Do lake sediment records show evidence
of a Younger Dryas impact event or its potential ecological effects?
Abstract COS 13-5, The 94th ESA Annual Meeting (August 2 --
7, 2009) Albuquerque, New Mexico.

http://eco.confex.com/eco/2009/techprogram/P20277.HTM

In part, the abstract states:

"We collected sediment cores from Appleman and Spicer
Lakes, IN, Silver Lake, OH, and Kirchner Marsh, MN, with
radiocarbon-dated records spanning the YD. Our sites are
ideally situated to record regional environmental responses
to a nearby impact."

It concludes:

"Results from LOI, magnetics, microspherules, charcoal and
XRF do not show the signatures predicted for a YD event.
Vegetation reconstructions are still in progress as of the time
of this abstract, but at Appleman, the Sporormiella decline
precedes the YD. We are continuing analyses to determine
whether this apparent discrepancy between the predictions of
the YD impact hypothesis and the lack of evidence in lake
sediments persist across sites."

It is part of the "COS 13 - Paleoecology" session at:

http://eco.confex.com/eco/2009/techprogram/S4761.HTM

Yours,

Paul H.

Martian Meteorwrongs for sale on Ebay

Martian Meteorwrongs for sale on Ebay

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 21 09:58:35 EST 2010

Dear Friends,

There some Martian Meteorwrongs for sale on Ebay at
either http://tiny.cc/MeteoriteFossils or
http://shop.ebay.com/lin440315/m.html?_nkw=&_armrs=1&_from=&_ipg=&_trksid=p4340

They include
1. "Martian Fossil Meteorite" ball containing BV fossil,
2. "Martian Fossil Meteorite" containing fossil BV/HC/RBC ,
and 3. "Martian Iron Meteorite" containing fossil BV/HC/RBC

In the "Martian Fossil Meteorite" containing fossil BV/HC/RBC ," at
either http://tiny.cc/MartianMeteoriteFossil or
http://cgi.ebay.com/Prettiest-Fossil-Meteorite-seal-containing-Martian-BV_W0QQitemZ130367057871QQcmdZViewItemQQptZLH_DefaultDomain_0?hash=item1e5a7b6fcf
the person states:

"Uniqueness: Pretty scarlet blood vessel remains are visible
with a simple magnifier.

Origin: Mars

Age: Over 2.5 billion years old

Content: fossilized blood vessels and red blood cells

Size: About 9 X 4 X 4 centimeters

Shape: a Chinese big seal

Unique feature: contains fossilized remains of blood vessels and
osteon canals, which are the distinguishing feature of animal
compact bones."

and

"I recently found many meteorites actually contain fossils of Mars.

They are from Mars because there are thousands upon thousands
of meteorites that possess fossils of mammals. Thousands of
mammals could not have lived in asteroids, for they needed a
complex ecosystem to sustain them, such as water source,
vegetation, other smaller animals, etc. So, they must have originated
from a planet, not asteroids. Mars, rather than any other planet, is
the only possible planet that originated those fossil meteorites."

The same person also has a 290 million-year old "Fossil Hominid"
bone, "Antique primate leg bone fossil 290 million years old,"
for sale at

http://cgi.ebay.com/Antique-primate-leg-bone-fossil-290-million-years-old_W0QQitemZ130368774308QQcategoryZ3216QQcmdZViewItemQQ_trksidZp4340.m263QQ_trkparmsZalgo%3DDLSL%252BSIC%26its%3DI%252BC%26itu%3DUCI%252BIA%252BUA%252BFICS%252BUFI%252BDDSIC%26otn%3D10%26po%3D%26ps%3D63%26clkid%3D8002578974541559374

A blog about the "primate" pseudofossil, actually a siderite
concretion, can be found in "Convinced You Found a 230
MYA Human Fossil? Sell it on eBay for 2-3 Mil!" at
either http://tiny.cc/HominidFossilEbay or
http://lostinliminality.wordpress.com/2010/02/09/found-a-230-mya-human-fossil-sell-it-on-ebay-for-2-3-mil/

and in "$3 million “primate fossil” on eBay, Journal of
ImprobableResearch at:

http://improbable.com/2010/02/09/3-million-primate-fossil-on-ebay/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 19 February 2010

Shirokovsky Pseudopallastites

Shirokovsky Pseudopallastites

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Fri Feb 19 19:56:33 EST 2010

Dark Matter wrote in "Fake pallasites" at
http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/meteorite-list/2010-February/061171.html

"Any chance you can elaborate on who is "they"
and if the fake pallasite you are alluding to is
Shirokovsky?"

By the way, is anyone selling pieces of the Shirokovsky
Psuedopallastite?

The only fragment that could find for sale is at
"Shirokovsky Pallasite 1,16 gms" at http://tiny.cc/SchirokovskyPallasite and
http://tiny.cc/ShirokovskyPallasite2 or
http://www.online-schmuck.biz/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=638&osCsid=02c4a2d3b6f48098f34f2a18b1d096c7
http://www.online-schmuck.biz/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=636&osCsid=02c4a2d3b6f48098f34f2a18b1d096c7
where the seller is still under the delusion that it
is a real meteorite.

Even though it is a fake, it seems like would be fun to have
a piece in one's collections given the way "mimics" a type
of meteorite that normally lacks any meteorwrongs that can
be mistaken for it.

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 14 February 2010

Terminal Permian Volcanism and Mass Extinctions

Terminal Permian Volcanism and Mass Extinctions

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 14 11:26:30 EST 2010

Dear Friends,

Below are some recent web pages and PDF files of publications
about termianl Permian volcanism and mass extinction. It looks
like this mass extinction was not caused by either an asteroid or
comet impact.

http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Permian/SiberianTraps.html

(Map of Russia with highlighted area around Siberian Traps)
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Permian/SiberianTraps.html

Siberian Traps
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siberian_Traps

The Siberian Traps - Home
http://www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/Index.html
http://www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/Plumesornot.html
http://www.le.ac.uk/gl/ads/SiberianTraps/FBandME.html

Emeishan Traps
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emeishan_Traps

Late Permian Emeishan flood basalt in southeastern China
http://www.iugg.org/members/nationalreports/china2002/chinaIAVCEI/4%20LATE%20PERMIAN%20EMEISHAN%20FLOOD%20BASALTS.htm

9. T84. Volcanism, Impacts, Mass Extinctions, and Global
Environmental Change II (Paleontological Society; GSA
Sedimentary Geology Division)
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2009AM/finalprogram/session_25172.htm

A few of innumerable online PDF files of papers:

Kamo, S. L., G. K. Czamanske, Y. Amelina, V. A. Fedorenko, D. W.
Davis, and V. R. Tro¢mov, 2003, Rapid eruption of Siberian
Flood-volcanic rocks and evidence for coincidence with the
Permian-Triassic boundary and mass extinction at 251 Ma. Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 214, pp. 75-91.

http://bi154.dhcp.ttu.edu/extinction/kamo+al03.pdf

Haggerty, B. M., 1996, Episodes of Flood-Basalt Volcanism Defined by
Ar40/Ar39 Age Distributions: Correlation with Mass Extinctions?
Journal of Undergraduate Science. vol. 3, pp. 156-164.

http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/~jus/0303/haggerty.pdf

Metcalfe, I., and Y. Isozaki, 2009, Current perspectives on the
Permian–Triassic boundary and end-Permian mass extinction:
Preface. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. vol. 36, pp. 407–412

http://ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/earth/Members/Isozaki/09JAES-preface.pdf

Isozaki, Y., 2007, Plume Winter scenario for biosphere catastrophe:
the Permo-Triassic boundary case. In Yuen, D., Maruyama, S.,
Karato, S. and Windley, B.F. (eds.), Superplume: beyond plate
tectonics. pp. 409-440, Springer, Berlin.

http://ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/earth/Members/Isozaki/07superplume.pdf

(warning the above file is 29 MB in size)

Isozaki, Y., 2009, Illawarra Reversal: The fingerprint of a
superplume that triggered Pangean breakupand the end-
Guadalupian (Permian) mass extinction. Gondwana Research.
vol. 15, pp. 421–432.

http://ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/earth/Members/Isozaki/09Illawarra-GR.pdf

A bunch of downloadable PDF files at the bottom of "Yukio
Isozaki" at;

http://ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/earth/Members/isozaki_Eng.html

Retallack, G.J., 2005, Permian greenhouse crises, in Lucas, S.G.
and Ziegler, K.E., ed., The nonmarine Permian. Bulletin New
Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. vol. 30, pp. 256-269.

http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/_media/directory/faculty/greg/permiancrises.pdf?id=directory%3Afaculty%3Agreg%3Apublications&cache=cache
http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/directory/faculty/greg/publications

Retallack, G. J., R. M. H. Smith, and P. D. Ward, 2003, Vertebrate
extinction across Permian-Triassic boundary in Karoo Basin, South
Africa. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. vol. 115, no. 9,
pp. 1133 - 1152.

http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/_media/directory/faculty/greg/karoopt_final.pdf?id=directory%3Afaculty%3Agreg%3Apublications&cache=cachehttp
http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/directory/faculty/greg/publications


Retallack, G. J., Christine A. Metzger, Tara Greaver, A. Hope Jahren,
Roger M.H. Smith and Nathan D. Sheldon, 2006, Middle-Late Permian
mass extinction on land, GSA Bulletin. vol. 118, no. 11-12,
pp. 1398-1411

http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/_media/directory/faculty/greg/mid-late_permian_extinction.pdf?id=directory%3Afaculty%3Agreg%3Apublications&cache=cache
http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/directory/faculty/greg/publications

Retallack, G. J., Greaver, T., and Jahren, A. H., 2007, Return to
Coalsack Bluff and the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica.
Global and Planetary Change. vol . 55, pp. 90-108

http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/_media/directory/faculty/greg/coalsack.pdf?id=directory%3Afaculty%3Agreg%3Apublications&cache=cache
http://www.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/directory/faculty/greg/publications

Yours,

Paul H.

Ocean Acidification and the Permian and Triassic Extinctions

Ocean Acidification and the Permian and Triassic Extinctions

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 14 11:03:47 EST 2010

Asteroid and comet impacts are not the only possible
cause for the Permian and Triassic-Jurassic extinctions.
Some recent papers on a likely major contributing cause
to these mass extinctions are:

1. Saunders, A., and M. Reichow, 2009, The Siberian Traps
and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review.
Chinese Science Bulletin. vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 20-37.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/1743222152769702/

"Compromise of the carbon sequestration systems (by
curtailment of photosynthesis, destruction of biomass,
and warming and acidification of the oceans) probably
led to rapid atmospheric CO2 build-up, warming, and
shallow-water anoxia, leading ultimately to mass
extinction."

2. Knoll, A. H., R. K. Bambach, J. L. Payne, S. Prussa and
Woodward W. Fischer, 2007, Paleophysiology and end-Permian
mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
vol. 256, no. 3-4, pp. 295-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2007.02.018

"Global warming, anoxia, and toxic sulfide probably all
contributed to end-Permian mass mortality, but hypercapnia
(physiological effects of elevated PCO2) best accounts
for the selective survival of marine invertebrates."

3. Hautmann, M., 2004, Effect of End-Triassic CO2
maximum on carbonate sedimentation and marine mass
extinction. Facies. vol. 50, pp. 257-261.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/ajvptjvenfvte5ck/

"Besides the frequently cited climatic effect of enhanced
carbon dioxide, lowering the saturation state of sea water
with respect to calcium carbonate was an additional driving
force of the end-Triassic mass extinction, which chiefly
affected organisms with thick aragonitic or high-magnesium
calcitic skeletons. Replacement of aragonite by calcite,
as found in the shells of epifaunal bivalves, was an
evolutionary response to this condition."

4. Hautmann, M., M., J. Benton, and A. Tomasovych, 2008,
Catastrophic ocean acidification at the Triassic-Jurassic
boundary. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Paleontologie
Abhandlungen. vol. 249, pp. 119-127.

"Using carbon isotopes as a geochemical marker, we found
that the onset of the CO2 emissions coincided with an
interruption of carbonate sedimentation in palaeogeographically
distant regions, suggesting that hydrolysis of CO2 led to
a short but substantial decrease of seawater pH that slowed
down or inhibited precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals.
The cessation of carbonate sedimentation correlates with a
major marine extinction event, which especially affected
organisms with aragonitic or high-Mg calcitic skeletons and
little physiological control of biocalcification."

5. Ryan, D., and D. Lehrann, 2009, Petrographic evaluation of
a Permian-Triassic erosion surface and implications for causes
of the end-Permian mass extinction. Geological Society of
America Abstracts with Programs, Vol 41, No. 4, p. 17.
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2009NC/finalprogram/abstract_156104.htm

"Our results favor genesis as a submarine dissolution surface
resulting from ocean acidification during the end-Permian
extinction."

6. Veron, J. E. N., 2008, Mass extinctions and ocean acidification:
biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs.
vol. 27, no. 3., pp. 459-472.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/085g2151l3nlt871/

7. Zhuravlev, A. Y., and R. A. Wood, 2009, Controls on
carbonate skeletal mineralogy: Global CO2 evolution and
mass extinctions. Geology. vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1123-1126.
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/37/12/1123.abstract

"Mass extinction events, many of which may be caused by
rapid global changes in temperature and/or pCO2, represent
major intervals of turnover."

8. Sleep, N. H., 2009, End-Permian Extinction From Massive
Basalt-Coal Interaction. Geological Society of America Abstracts
with Programs, Vol. 41, No. 7, p. 359.
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2009AM/finalprogram/abstract_162958.htm

"The sudden CO2 and methane release then resulted in strong
global warming. There was insufficient time to renew the
mixed layer of the ocean, resulting in much stronger
acidification than in the present ocean. Overall, changes
that occur over less than the lifetimes of organisms are
more likely to have catastrophic biological effects than slow
changes. Therefore a sudden massive release of CO2 from coal
burning over a few years is a more likely mass extinction
mechanism than the gradual release of CO2 from metamorphism
over 10000s of years in the Siberian basin."

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 7 February 2010

Survival in the first hours of the Cenozoic

Survival in the first hours of the Cenozoic

Paul Heinrich oxytropidoceras at cox.net
Sun Feb 7 23:14:09 EST 2010

Robertson D. S., M. C. McKenna, B. T. Owen, S. Hope and
J. A. Lillegraven, 2004, Survival in the first hours of the
Cenozoic. Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 116,
no. 5/6, pp. 760-768.

Abstract at:

http://bulletin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/116/5-6/760

PDF file at:

http://webh01.ua.ac.be/funmorph/raoul/macroevolutie/Robertson2004.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

P. S. Who Dat ??

We Dat !!! :-) :-)

Saints roll, beat Colts 31-17
http://www.indystar.com/article/20100207/SPORTS03/100207014/Manning-s-magic-ends

New Orleans 31, Indianapolis 17
http://content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/football/nfl/game/Saints_Colts/2010/02/07

"more interesting than a debate about firearms"

OT Fw: "more interesting than a debate about firearms"

Paul Heinrich
Sun Feb 7 21:04:37 EST 2010

Linton Rohr wrote:

""IMO, the 2010 gem show is considerably more
interesting than a debate about firearms.""

"Absolutely, Geoff! It's a damn shame to have this
nonsense on the list during the big event of
the year. Linton - off to the show..."

Quite true, except maybe for this type of gun: :-) :-)

"Potato Cannon"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpAJOPzKK-M

Test of my biggest potato cannon with 800 gram ammo.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdFK5eVmZ3o

Potato Gun Explosions at 250 mph!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpbtlK5E1QQ

When potatoes are outlawed, we will use onions instead.

Yours,

Paul H.